Friday, May 24, 2013

When & Where Stomp & Shake Cheerleading Began (Some History Of This Style Of Cheerleading)

Edited by Azizi Powell

Latest Revision- March 3, 2024- title change

This is Part III of a three part series that compares three different but closely related African American originated performance movement arts: historically Black fraternities & sororities steppin (stepping); foot stomping [cheers]; and stomp & shake cheerleading.

This post provides a history and an overview of stomp & shake cheerleading.

Part I provides an overview of historically Black (African American) Greek lettered fraternities & sororities. Click for Part I of this series.

Part II provides an overview of foot stomping cheers. Click and for this information and examples of foot stomping cheers.

The content of this post is presented for folkloric, cultural, entertainment, and aesthetic purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

Thanks to all those who are quoted in this post and thanks to all those who are featured in these embedded videos. Thanks also to publishers of these videos on YouTube.
Update June 9, 2023: The term "stomp and shake" appears to be the most often used way of referring to this style of cheerleading. The spelling "stomp and shake" replaces "stomp nshake" and "stomp & shake".

Most of this pancocojams post was written in 2013 and contains older versions of that referent.   

I am an African American who describes myself as a "community folklorist". Almost all the information that is found in this post was gleaned from online sources.

I have never been a member of any cheerleading squad and I have never seen any stomp and shake cheerleading performed in person, except for very modified versions of stomp and shake cheerleading that was performed by high school cheerleaders in my adopted hometown of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

.Everything that I know or conjecture about stomp and shake cheerleading is what I've gathered from the internet- mostly from watching YouTube videos and reading those videos' discussion threads. In addition, I had some informative online comment exchanges with one former stomp and shake cheerleader in 2011, but I regret that I lost contact with him after that year.

For the historical and cultural record, please add additions and corrections to this post and other pancocojams posts on stomp and shake cheerleading. Thanks in advance!


The earliest university based stomp and shake squads appear to be Virginia State University's cheerleaders (1974) and Winston Salem State University's cheerleaders (1976).

[Read the  information given in the "Earliest Documentation" section of this post.]

Based on my research, it appears clear to me that stomp and shake cheerleading has its source in the African American performance form of historically Black Greek letter steppin(g) and the less familiar performance form of  foot stomping cheers.

Like mainstream cheerleading, the purpose of the cheer squad is to support the athletes playing the sport and to increase the enthusiasm of people attending the athletic game or people who are otherwise watching the game.

Stomp and shake cheerleading has vehement supporters who love the skill, creativity, innovation, showmanship, "hardness" and "for realness" (according to Black cultural criteria) of this type of cheerleading. 

However, stomp and shake cheerleading also has vehement detractors who don't consider it to be "real cheerleading", but a form of fraternity/sorority stepping and/or cheer dancing. Stomp & cheer detractors also routinely negatively label stomp & shake cheerleading and its (almost exclusively) Black female squad members as being "ghetto" (behaving and dressing in ways that are unacceptable in middle class standards, particularly to behave and dress in sexually provocative ("slutty) ways, and behaving in loud and overly aggressive confrontational ways. 

A frequent criticism of stomp and shake cheerleading that is found in YouTube discussion threads for stomp and shake cheerleading is that the words to the cheers are difficult to understand. Many commenters also critical about the bass sounding voices that are characteristic of stomp and shake cheerleaders. It's customary for these cheerleaders to use those voices so that their sound carries more.  Bass voices are also said to convey more power than the high pitched voices that are associated with traditional cheerleading. 

Stomp and shake cheerleading focuses on the squad's performance of choreographed percussive, rhythmic bass sounding foot stomps ("downstomps", individual (not partner) hand claps, knee lifts ("upstomps")*, side to side hip shaking ("shakes") and fast side to side hip shaking ("jiggle-pop").** 
 These moves are done throughout the entire unison cheer or chant.  

In contrast to traditional cheerleading cheers that focus on the football or basketball athletic game and/or the cheerleaders' team/school, most stomp and shake cheers focus on the cheerleading squad itself . Stomp and shake cheers are brief compositions that are usually self-bragging and/or dissing competitor/s . By "self-bragging" I mean "bragging about the cheer squad itself" but not individual members of the squad and not the athletic team or individual members of the team or the squad's/athlete team's school/university. 

Stomp and shake cheers usually begin with the squad captain or some other designated squad member calling out the name of the cheer and/or chanting and sometimes performing the beginning words or the entire cheer while the other members remain silent. The person calling that cheer may stand in her place in the squad formation or may stand in front of or in center place of several horizontal lines. In some squads, the captain may be the only person standing in the first horizontal line in the gymnasium bleachers or during field cheers . In sideline cheers, the squad captain is usually in the center of the sideline.     

Some stomp and shake cheerleading teams also include signature calls in their cheers that are similar to the calls of specific historically Black Greek letter sororities and fraternities. An example of such a call is Winston Salem State University's "Eeeeeee-yoouuuuuu" or eee-yoop" or similar approximations of this sound. Stomp and shake cheers may also include echoed words (where a member of the squad repeats the same word that the squad says) and exclamations of excitement and/or support such as "Yeah! and "Let's Go!" during their cheers. 

The term "battle cheers" is a referent for these self-bragging/insulting (dissing) aggressive cheers. Two stomp and shake cheerleading squads may "battle" each other while facing each other prior to a football game, or on the basketball court during half-time, or while cheering from the stands during an actual game. Cheer battles have also become a separate event apart from any athletic game. These cheer battles occur indoor or outdoors in front of an audience.

Stomp and shake routines may include "body patting" ("pattin juba"). However, it appears from watching YouTube videos that this element of stomp and shake cheerleading is less often performed in 2023.  Nevertheless, clapping ones hands and then patting one's thighs is still done by some squads. Furthermore, I believe that juba patting (body slaps) influenced/s the rhythm patterns that stomp and shake cheerleaders make while seated in bleachers by alternating their hand claps with their foot stomps, and their clapping the bleachers.

Most stomp & shake cheerleaders are female. However, a few males are also members of certain (usually university) stomp & shake squads. In those cheerleading squads, the males' hip swinging movements are not as pronounced as the females.

Stomp and shake cheerleading squads also "dance" to music that is played live by the school's band, without saying any chants. These routines include social dance steps and other movements that are the same or similar as some "exercise" moves.     

A few university based stomp and shake cheerleading squads perform stunts (tumbles, lifts etc. ) in addition to the movements that give that form of cheerleading its name. However, universities (such as WSSU and VSU) that are members of the CIAA don't perform stunts as that is prohibited by that athletic conference. 

Update: June 8, 2023 -It appears that the term "high step" has replaced the term "upstomp" and/or "up-step". 

The term "jiggle pop" doesn't appear to be used anymore (based on my reading numerous YouTube stomp and shake discussion threads). It seems to me that the term "double shake" has replaced the term "jiggle pop". However, note that the 2014 CIAA page that is quoted above differentiates between a "double shake" and a "jiggle pop". which appears to mean a "fast double shake". 

Click for information about "The Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association. That athletic conference is made up of historically Black colleges and universities that are primarily located along the central portion of the East Coast of the United States in the states of North Carolina, South Carolina,  Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania. Most of the universities that are members of CIAA are in North Carolina. 

As a matter of record, Lincoln University in Pennsylvania was a founding member of CIAA and is one of two historically Black colleges and universities in Pennsylvania- the other being Cheyney University. Read an excerpt in the discussion section for this post from a 2015 article about Lincoln University cheerleaders winning the Stomp and Shake and the Cheer Battle titles at the HBCU National All-Star Cheerleaders and Dance line competition over stomp and shake cheerleading squads representing three other historically Black universities.  

Also, click for information about The Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference (MEAC) which is a collegiate athletic conference whose full members are historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) in the Southeastern and the Mid-Atlantic United States. Members of MEAC are also known for their stomp and shake cheerleading squads.  

Here are some quotes that I've found about the early history of stomp & shake cheerleading:
[Numbers added for referencing purposes only]
Excerpt #1 
A Not-So-Brief and Extremely Sordid History of Cheerleading —By Julia Lurie
Mon Dec. 15, 2014 6:15 AM EST
..."As schools continue to integrate, one factor adding to tension is the difference in cheerleading styles between black and white schools: As Lou Lillard, a black cheerleader named All-American in 1972, explained, "The type of cheering at black high schools is…more of a stomp-clap, soul-swing...At [white] schools, the traditional cheers are straight-arm motions."

Excerpt #2
summarized: Dr. Paulette Johnson began coaching for Virginia State University's Woo Woos cheerleaders in 1974, and coached that squad for 35 1/2 years.

Excerpt #3
summarized: Debra [Deborah] L. Rivers initiated the stomp & shake style of cheerleading at Winston Salem State University when she began coaching that cheerleading squad in 1976. She was WSSU's cheerleading coach for 17 years. 

Excerpt #4
From "Race and the Changing Shape of Cheerleading by Guest Blogger Azizi Powell, Jul 21, 2011, at 10:00 am
[Numbers given for referencing purposes only]

1. Bananadrama, 2011

..."I went to high school in the 80s and the cheerleaders were already doing this, but it was a little more clap-and-leap. There was also a pom team, which did more of the dance moves to music and didn't lead vocal cheers. But pop music has changed and there's more rap that's popular, and dance moves from rap videos, instead of Def Leppard. :D

2. Sule reply to Bananadrama, 2011

"Hey, there. This kind of cheering was coming in when I went to Rabaut Junior High School in DC--graduated in 1972. We also had a girl's drill team. Does this come from then, or Wilson High: "We bad; we know it! We kick your ass and show it!"? "

Except #5
From "A Not-So-Brief and Extremely Sordid History of Cheerleading" —By Julia Lurie, Mon Dec. 15, 2014 6:15 AM EST
...."1967: Seventeen football players at Madison High School in Illinois are barred from the team for boycotting a practice after only one black cheerleader is picked for the varsity squad. Following the dismissal of the football players, nearly all of the school district's 1,300 black students boycott classes for a week. As schools continue to integrate, one factor adding to tension is the difference in cheerleading styles between black and white schools: As Lou Lillard, a black cheerleader named All-American in 1972, explained, "The type of cheering at black high schools is...more of a stomp-clap, soul-swing…At [white] schools, the traditional cheers are straight-arm motions."

Excerpt #6
From The Winston-Salem State University Cheerleading Team
"The Winston-Salem State University Cheerleaders exemplify a distinctive style that has molded its programs tradition since the early 1980’s."

Excerpt #7
From  Cute Stomp and Shake cheers for sideline!!!! | Upload #2, published by meleah moon on Jun 12, 2018 [This video and its discussion thread are no longer available.] 

1. Belinda Suggs, September 2018 [discussion thread]
"this is exactly the way I remember cheering in the 70's. deep voice and all. I love it! cheering style started changing in the 80's. they took rhythm out of cheering. now it's back!"

Belinda Suggs, September 2018 [discussion threads]
"back in the 70's we didn't call it stomp and cheer but it sure feels like the old school style of cheering is coming back. so refreshing!"

Click for a March 22,2023 YouTube video entitled How "Virginia State's Woo Woos were created and changed HBCU cheerleading forever".

That video includes vintage clips of Virginia State University's stomp and shake cheerleading squad the "Woo Woo" and interview clips with Paulette Walker-Johnson, founder of The Woo Woos (in the early 1970s). Retired coach Walker-Johnson talks about her career and carving out a legacy in the world of HBCU Cheerleading and beyond.


-African American dancing in general particularly syncopation, individual hand claps, body pats, foot stomping and moving one's body to the beat

-High kicks from various Jazz dances. The drum major's high kicks in African American 
marching bands and Black (African American) drill teams also influenced the performance of stomp and shake cheerleading

-According to this video: "The Prancing J-Settes: “Origin and Development of the Prancing J-Settes”, majorette dance lines (j-setting) started in Jackson, Mississippi in 1971. One element that j-setting and stomp and shake cheerleading have in common is the way that the captain or another member of the dance line announces the routine and performs a few short moves while announcing the name of the routine. That member of the dance team usually stands in the front row or slightly in front of the other members of the group. 

A member of a stomp and shake squad usually announces a cheer and may do a movement from that cheer. That squad member usually stands in the first row or slightly in front of other members of the squad.  


I believe that it's significant that similar forms of foot stomping and hand clapping cheers are documented as originating around this same time period (the early to mid 1970s and the early 1980) in the Washington D.C., in a geographical area that is close to Virginia/North Carolina area. Although historically Black Greek letter fraternities and sororities were formed as early as 1906, the early 1970s was when historically Black university's Greek letter fraternity and sorority stepping started to become more well known in African American communities. Howard University, located in Washington D.C. area, is the "birth place" of four of the "Divine Nine" historically Black Greek letter fraternities and sororities*, and it's likely that public steppin performances occurred at that university prior to their public performances elsewhere.  

*Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Founded 1908, Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Founded 1911,  Delta Sigma Theta Sorority,  Howard University, and Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, Founded 1914. Because of those organizations, and others, Howard University in 
Washington, D.C. is also the geographical location and the earliest documentation that I've found for the  the African American originated sub-set of cheerleading that I refer to as "foot stomping cheers". (specifically: The cheers entitled "Cheerleading: Think, Your Left; Cheering Is My Game; Hollywood Now Swingin'/Dynomite" in the 1977 record "Old Mother Hippletoe: Rural And Urban Children's Songs

Ironically, the earliest dated example of a "foot stomping cheer" that I've collected, was from an online communication with an unknown White woman who resided/resides in my former hometown of Atlantic City, New Jersey (early 1970s, from her memory of her classmates who were White, Black, and Latina high school girls). 

These early references to "foot stomping cheers" shouldn't be read as impling that foot stomping cheers that were performed in the 1980s through the early 2000s* were performed the same way. *(Writing in April 2022, it appears that foot stomping cheers are no longer performed.)    

I also believe that it's significant that the Washington D. C. area in the early 1970s/mid 1970s was the birth place and birth time for the dance music genre known as "Go Go" music:
"Go-go is a popular music subgenre associated with funk originating in the Washington, D.C., area during the late-60s to late-70s which remains popular in the Washington metropolitan area as a uniquely regional music style. It became the official music of the city in 2020.[1] Some early bands credited with having developed the style are the Young Senators, funk band Black Heat, and singer-guitarist Chuck Brown.[2] Go-go is primarily a dance hall music with an emphasis on live audience call and response."

Washington D.C.'s call & response "Go Go" music probably had more influence upon African American girls' foot stomping cheers than on stomp and shake cheerleading. However, as I have suggested in this post, how foot stomping cheer were performed (and the words and "attitudes" of some foot stomping cheers themselves  influenced stomp and shake cheerleading.

For the folkloric record, please add to this section by adding information, memories and/or links about early stomp and shake cheerleading (with demographics, i.e. dates, school/university names, and descriptions). Thanks!

Stomp & shake cheerleading differs from mainstream (traditional) cheerleading in that its cheers/chants often focus on the cheerleading squad itself and not on the athletes, the game being played, or the audience watching the game.

The facial expressions and persona of stomp & cheer cheerleaders are often diametrically the opposite of the perky, always smiling mainstream cheerleader, particularly when it comes to stomp and shake "battle cheers". "Battle cheers" are chanted to big up (brag about) your athletic team and/or your cheerleading squad, and to put down (diss) your competitor's cheerleading squad.

The term "battle cheers" refers both the type of stomp & shake cheers and the purpose for those cheers. "Battle cheers" are chanted by two opposing cheerleading squads prior to a competitive football game or during a "battle cheer" competition. During a battle cheer each cheerleading squad performs self-bragging cheers and group insulting cheers as a way of rattling the confidence of their competitors and as a way of determining which squad is the most successful in getting their fans "hyped" (according to crowd reactions). These cheer activities can are similar to face to face Dozens competitions and Rap competitions, except that improvisation and free styling are key elements in Dozens & Rap competitions, but isn't an element of (or is a much reduced element of) stomp & cheer battle cheers.

It's important to remember that drama (role playing) is an important part of chanting insult/bragging stomp & shake cheers. The cheer performance fails if the cheerleader doesn't act as if she is confident, strong, assertive, and unafraid of the members of the rival cheerleading squad.

According to online discussion threads about this topic, university stomp & shake squads who perform stomp & shake cheers that are associated with another university squad are looked down upon for lacking originality. Those university level cheerleading squads and high school, middle school etc. squads that perform other cheerleaders' cheers/chants are often accused of "stealing". However, thanks to the internet and YouTube in particular, certain stomp & shake cheers & their routines have become part of the cheer repertoire of high school, middle school, and elementary school cheerleading squads.

Since this post was first published in 2013, I've noted that stomp & shake cheers are sometimes referred to (in YouTube video discussion threads) as "stomp chants" or "stomp cheers".

"Upstomps" is a signature movement that is performed by female and male members of some stomp and shake squads where the cheerleaders stomp two times with their left foot and perform a high knee lift (raise the right leg bent at the knee). In the videos I've watched of upstomping, the toes are usually pointed to the ground. In some stomp and shake squads the knee is bent at a slight angle toward the right.

It's likely that this stomp and shake movement came from the African American originated high step marching of show style marching bands. High step marching also includes knee lifts.

Another stomp & shake movement that female cheerleaders perform is called "jiggle pops". "Jigglepops" are a rhythmical, fast double shake of their hips. 

That term is a combination of the movement words "jiggle" and "pop". gives this definition for "jiggle"- "to move from side to side or up and down with quick short movements, or to make something do this".

One definition for the noun "pop" given at is "a short, quick, explosive sound.". A combination of these two definition give a description of the stomp and shake "jigglepop" movement.

Most stomp and shake squads are females only. When males are also members of those squads, they don't shake as much as the females. The jiggle pops movements are best shown off when the cheerleaders wear pleated cheerleader skirts. 

Here's a quote from a 2014 version of a CIAA page that refers to "upstomps", "jiggle pops", and some other stomp and shake movements:
"The CIAA cheering squads practice Stomp 'N Shake that incorporates voice, gymnastics, and dance. Over the past few decades, S-N-S has evolved into a more technical style, priding itself on precision, accuracy, and creativity. Included in this style are the techniques of up-stomp, up-step, down-stomp, kick, side-kick, roll, roll-break, power-arms, slpaz-hand, clasp, blade, and the shakes (car-wash shake, single shake, double shake, hit-shake, and jiggle-pop). CIAA Cheerleading is most known for its cheer battles. This is where squads battle each other during games verbally with chants. It provides a heightened level of excitement and competition to the sports they are cheering for. It showcases cheerleading in a different dimension. Only in this style can you excite the crowd, rally them to cheer on the team, cheer on the team and slay your opponent all at the same time."
* I retrieved this on February 5, 2014. This paragraph isn’t included in that CIAA page as of 9/14/2016. No descriptions of those movements were given on that page.

Update: November 23, 2020 
I've read references to "upstomp" in a few comments in discussion threads of some YouTube videos of stomp and shake cheerleading. However, I can't recall reading any references to these other stomp and shake techniques, except for the cheer page which is quoted later in this post.

Update: June 8, 2023 -It appears that the term "high step" has replaced the term "upstomp". 

The term "jiggle pop" doesn't appear to be used anymore (based on my reading YouTube discussion thread. I think that the term "double shake" has replaced the term "jiggle pop". However, that 2014 CIAA page that is quoted above differentiates between a "double shake" and a jiggle pop". 
Update: Nov 23, 2020- CIAA has a new format of multiple articles. I haven't found any information about cheerleading on these CIAA pages.

Here's an explanation about how to do "upstomp" that was written by a former WSSU cheerleader in a YouTube video about Southern University's new stomp & shake cheerleading squad: 
CheerPhi93, 2022
"… With the upstomp, leg placement (the leg coming up) should be close to a 90 degree as possible with the upstomp foot POINTING downwards and beside the opposite knee as if you are in a (lib)....
Click for this entire comment. (Discussion thread #1, comment #31)

Here's information about the CIAA that I retrieved on Wikipedia on Nov. 23, 2020:
"The Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association (CIAA) is a collegiate athletic conference, mostly consisting of historically black colleges and universities. CIAA institutions are affiliated at the Division II level of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA).

Conference members are primarily located in North Carolina (eight) and Virginia (two). There is also one school from Maryland and another from Pennsylvania"...
Stomp & shake cheer routines may also include some body patting and body slapping.

In some YouTube videos of high school stomp and shake squads, the squad members perform the entire cheer while seated or standing in gym bleachers. 

The movements that are mentioned above are done while the squad chant cheers in unison. These cheers are usually introduced by one squad member standing in the front line, who says the name of the cheer and may do a brief cheer motion. 

Many stomp & shake cheers are similar in tone-but not in structure-to the insult/bragging foot stomping cheers. However, unlike foot stomping cheers, stomp & shake cheerleaders may  perform some of their routines to the band's instrumental music or to recorded music.

Here's the quote from that I retrieved   on November 23, 2020 :

CIAA cheerleading

One of the signature events of "Super Saturday" at the CIAA Basketball Tournament is the Cheer Exhibition. At the exhibition, CIAA cheer squads showcase elaborate routines to entertain spectators and display their talents.[13][14] Every cheerleading team in the CIAA is a "Stomp-N-Shake" squad which is a unique style of cheer that is most common among predominately African-American schools and colleges located in the East Coast region.

The CIAA is one of the only conferences in the country that has an annual All-Conference Cheerleading Team. The All-Conference Cheerleading Team is a recognition bestowed on select cheerleaders in the conference that exemplify the epitome of school spirit, leadership, athleticism, and academic excellence.[15]

InstitutionSquad name
Bowie State UniversityThe "Golden Girls"
Claflin UniversityThe "Panther Dolls"
Elizabeth City State UniversityThe "D'Lytes"
Fayetteville State University"Cheer Phi Smoov"
Johnson C. Smith UniversityThe "Luv-A-Bulls"
Lincoln UniversityThe "Fe Fe's"
Livingstone CollegeThe "La La's"
Saint Augustine's UniversityThe "Bluechips"
Shaw UniversityThe "Chi Chi's"
Virginia State UniversityThe "Woo Woo's"
Virginia Union UniversityThe "Rah Rah's"
Winston-Salem State UniversityThe "Powerhouse of Red and White"


Winston-Salem State University's cheerleading squad/s is (are) also known as "Cheer Phi". I've also seen "The Rams" used as a name for that squad or squads.

Notice how many of these names are "reduplications"- a repetition of one word. Here's an article about reduplication:

Here's information about the term "East coast" that I retrieved from on Nov. 13, 2020:
"Regionally, the term refers to the coastal states and area east of the Appalachian Mountains that have shoreline on the Atlantic Ocean, from north to south, Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida."

This website is from East Coweta High School Basketball Cheer Program (located in Sharpsburg, GA). That website includes hyperlinks to videos of various stomp and shake cheers performed by that school's cheerleaders. That website also links to demonstrations of the following stomp and shake techniques: "downstomp", "upstomp", "jiggle pop", and "shakes".

Unfortunately, that website doesn't include any written descriptions of those techniques. 

The "downstomp" movement is the same as the "upstomp" (description given earlier in this post) except that the cheerleader doesn't raise her (or his) knee high when doing that stomping movement.

The "shake" movement is one in which the cheerleaders shake their hips from right to left to the beat. This movement differs from jiggle pop in that these aren't fast, repetitive shakes.  


Here's a video of a widely replicated "battle cheer":

Howard University Bison Cheerleaders 2

CoachSpence, Uploaded on Oct 19, 2006

Howard University Battle Cheer "Sit Back Down"

Example #1: The World Renown Woo Woos of  Virginia State University

GoTrojans·Uploaded on Sep 30, 2010

2009 Freedom Classic
January 2009
Richmond, VA

Example #2: WSSU Red Team Cheerleaders NC Stomp & Shake Competition

Kiaerica Krishelle, Published on Feb 23, 2013

WSSU opening up the show at the FIRST annual Stomp n Shake cheerleading competition on Saturday 2/23/2013
The way the cheerleaders held their hands when they eentered the gym reminds me of the way that the Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc step teams perform their signature cheer "It's A Serious Matter". That post and other sorority & fraternity posts can be found on pancocojams by clicking the "steppin" or "fraternity and sorority chants" tags.


SASSY (We Shake The Best)

woowooworkit·Uploaded on Feb 17, 2007

JV And Varsity SASSY cheerleaders cheer at the last game against bluestone
The words to each of this cheer and other pre-university cheerleader cheers, including several stomp & shake cheers are found on this page of my cocojams website:

Click for a post on stomp & shake cheerleading that I wrote which was published on the sociological images blog.

This concludes Part III of this pancocojams series.

Thanks for visiting pancocojams.

Visitor comments are welcome.


  1. In this pancocojams post I noted that Lincoln University in Pennsylvania was a member of The Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association. I was curious about how a Pennsylvania university (located in Central Pennsylvania, a little more than an hour and a half from Pennsylvania's capital Harrisburg) could be a member of CIAA. It turns out that Lincoln is one of two historically Black colleges and universities in Pennsylvania. (The other HBCU is Cheyney University.) And Lincoln was a founding member of CIAA.

    Full disclosure: I knew about Lincoln University as I visited that university in 1966 when I was in college in New Jersey. I've got some interesting memories of that visit...

    I also know about Cheyney University because my one year older sister attended and graduated from there.

    But I didn't know that "Originally established as The Ashmun Institute, Lincoln University received its charter from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania on April 29, 1854, making it the nation's first degree-granting Historically Black College and University (HBCU).

    As Horace Mann Bond, ‘23, Lincoln’s first African American and an eighth president, so eloquently cites in the opening chapter of his book, Education for Freedom, this was “the first institution found anywhere in the world to provide a higher education in the arts and sciences for male youth of African descent.”

    1. I also didn't know that Lincoln University has (had?) a stomp and shake cheerleading squad.

      Here's an excerpt from a 2015 article about that squad:,she%20is%20of%20the%20squad.&text=The%20Stomp%20and%20Shake%20portion,to%20support%20their%20performance's%20theme.
      "Cheerleading | 4/7/2015 5:14:00 PM
      The Lions won both the Stomp and Shake and the Cheer Battle titles at the HBCU National All-Star Cheerleaders and Danceline competition held at the Prince George's (Maryland) County Sports Complex on April 4. In its first competitive bid ever, the squad won both of the categories it performed in. The 13-member squad beat St. Augustine University, Shaw University and North Carolina Central University to claim the Stomp and Shake category and beat North Carolina Central University and St. Augustine University to claim the Cheer Battle title. Tiara Greene (Philadelphia, PA/Delaware Valley Charter HS), a junior from Philadelphia, led the squad as its captain. In her third year as coach and first year as head coach, Tiffany Harrison has worked to implement unique routines and tumbling sequences in all of their performances. Harrison, a former member of the Lincoln cheerleading squad, said how proud she is of the squad.

      "As an alumna, I am elated that the cheerleaders made Lincoln history by winning the competition in multiple categories and as the coach I was so happy to be able to have been a part of the wins. This team has come such a long way from when I first started with them three years ago. This was their first competition; they showed up and showed out. They worked very hard this year and these wins were the perfect way to end this season. Coach Fredericksen and I couldn't be prouder."

      The Stomp and Shake portion of the competition highlights the HBCU style of cheerleading. The squads were encouraged to use props, signs and costumes to support their performance's theme. The Lions adopted a boxing theme for the 5-minute performance. All of their music tied to theme and they incorporated fight moves such as punches and high kicks in their cheers and dances. The Cheer Battle routine was a head-to-head battle with the other schools, each completing three battle cheers."...

    2. As a long term resident of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, I don't believe that stomp and shake cheerleading is familiar to African Americans or other people in this part of that state.

      Please add any additions and corrections to this post and other pancocojams posts about stomp and shake cheerleading.


  2. Hello there, my mother Wanda Tiller is an Original Woo Woo and was on that 1974 squad at Virginia State and while they were the first to make Stomp n Shake style popular here in the south, it was because of their new coach that started that year, Paulette Walker (now Johnson) that brought that style to them from where she cheered at Morgan State. If you would like to speak with my mom or possibly Paulette Johnson they are still around and keep in contact with one another until this day.

    1. Thanks for sharing that information, Tanikka Wynn.

      To clarify, you wrote that "Paulette Walker (now Johnson) brought that stomp and shake cheerleader style to VSU from where she cheered at Morgan State." Does that mean that Morgan State performed stomp and shake cheerleading before VSU (or WSSU and any other HBCU?)

      I would prefer to email your mother and/or Paulette Walker about stomp and shake cheerleading.

      My email address is azizip17 at yahoo dot com.

      Thanks again!

  3. Hello there, I passed on your email to my mom so you can get the whole story!!!

    1. Thanks! I appreciate it. I'm looking forward to communicating with your mother.

      Best wishes!

    2. Unfortunately, as of June 8, 2023, I've not received any emails from this commenter's mother. If I receive any email, I'll share the pertinent content here with her permission.