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Tuesday, May 23, 2017

What "Half Steppin" And Other Vernacular Terms Mean In Big Daddy Kane's 1988 Hip Hop Classic "Ain't No Half Steppin'"

Edited by Azizi Powell

This pancocojams post shoewcases Big Daddy Kane's 1988 Hip Hop track "Ain't No Half Steppin'".

This post also provides definitions of the term "half steppin" and certain other terms & references that that are used in that track. Additions and corrections are welcome.

The content of this post is presented for cultural, linguistic, entertainment, and aesthetic purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

Thanks Big Daddy Kane for his musical legacy. Thanks also to to all those who are quoted in this post and thanks to the publisher of this video on YouTube.

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INFORMATION ABOUT BIG DADDY KANE'S "AIN'T NO HALF STEPPIN"
From https://genius.com/Big-daddy-kane-aint-no-half-steppin-lyrics
Created by box, 2010
..."The prestigious Rolling Stone Magazine voted this as the 25th best hip hop song of all time.
Written By Marley Marl & Big Daddy Kane.

Scratches- DJ Mister Cee

Mixed By Marley Marl

Release Date -June 28, 1988

Samples
Get Into It by Big Daddy Kane
The Big Beat by Billy Squier
UFO by ESG (NY)
Ease On Down The Road by Charlie Smalls (Ft. Diana Ross & Michael Jackson)
Blind Alley by The Emotions"

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SHOWCASE VIDEO Big Daddy Kane - Aint No Half Steppin



ass3678, Uploaded on Jul 26, 2009

From the "Long Live The Kane" album.

****
LYRICS

Pancocojams Editor:
I've numbered these lines as a means of referring to them in the Definition Of Certain Terms section below.

AIN'T NO HALF STEPPIN'
(written by Marley Marl & Big Daddy Kane)

[Intro]
1) Aw Yea, I'm with this
2) I'm just gonna sit here laid back to this nice mellow beat, you know
3) And drop some smooth lyrics
4) Cause it's '88
5) Time to set it straight, know what I'm saying?
6) And ain't no half stepping
7) Word, I'm ready:

[Verse 1]
8) Rappers stepping to me, they want to get some
9) But I'm the Kane, so yo, you know the outcome
10) Another victory
11) They can't get with me
12) So pick a BC date cause you're history
14) I'm the authentic poet to get lyrical
15) For you to beat me, it's gonna take a miracle
16) And, stepping to me, yo that's the wrong move
17) So what you on, Hobbs, dope or dog food?
18) Competition I just devour
19) Like a pit bull against a Chihuahua
20) Cause when it comes to being dope, hot damn
21) I got it good, now let me tell you who I am
22) The B-I-G D-A-double D-Y K-A-N-E
23) Dramatic, Asiatic, not like many
34) I'm different, so don't compare me to another
25) Cause they can't hang, word to the mother
26) At least not with the principal in this pedigree
27) So when I roll on you rappers, you better be
28) Ready to die because you're petty
29) You're just a butter knife, I'm a machete
30) That's made by Ginsu, wait until when you
31) Try to front, so I can chop into
32) Your body, just because you try to be basing
34) Friday the 13th, I'mma play Jason
35) No type of joke, gag, game, puzzle or riddle
36) The name is Big Daddy, yes Big not little
37) So define it
38) Here's your walking papers, sign it
39) And take a walk
40) As the Kane start to talk, cause

[Hook]
41) Ain't no half-steppin'
42) I'm the Big Daddy Kane

[Verse 2]
43) My rhymes are so dope and
44) The rappers be hoping
45) To sound like me, so soon I'll have to open
46) A school of emceeing, for those who want to be in
47) My field in court
48) Then again on second thought
49) To have emcees coming out sounding so similar
50) It's quite confusing for you to remember
51) The originator, and boy do I hate a
52) Perpetrator, but I'm much greater
53) The best oh yes I guess suggest the rest should fess
54) Don't mess or test your highness
55) Unless you just address with best finesse
56) And bless the paragraph I manifest
57) Rap prime minister, some say sinister
58) Non-stopping the groove, until when it's the
59) Climax, and I max, relax and chill
60) Have a break from a take of me acting ill
61) Brain cells are lit, ideas start to hit
62) Next the formation of words that fit
63) At the table I sit, making it legit
64) And when my pen hits the paper, ahh sh&t!*
65) I stop and stand strong over emcees
66) And devour with the power of Hercules
67) Or Samson, but I go further the length
68) Cause you could scalp my Cameo and I'll still have strength
69) And no, that's not a myth, and if you try to riff
70) Or get with, the man with the given gift of gab
71) Your vocab, I'll only ignore
72) Be sleeping on your rhymes till I start to snore
75) You can't awake me, or even make me
76) Fear you, son, cause you can't do me none
77) So, think about it if you're trying to go
78) When you want to step to me, I think you should know there

[Hook]

[Verse 3]
77) I appear right here and scare and dare
78) A mere musketeer that would dare to compare
79) Put him in the rear, back there where he can't see clear
80) Get a beer, idea or near stare, yeah
81) So on to be want to be competition
82) Trying to step to me--must be on a mission
83) Up on the stage is where I'mma get you at
84) You think I'm losing?
85) Psst, picture that

[Hook]

[Verse 4]
86) The name is Big Daddy, you know, as in your father
87) So when you hear a def rhyme, believe that I'm the author
88) I grab the mic and make emcees evaporate
89) The party people say 'Damn, that rapper's great'
90) The creator conductor of poetry
91) Et cetera, et cetera, it ain't easy being me
92) I speak clearly so you can understand
93) Put words together like Letter Man
94) Now that's dictation, proceeding to my innovation
95) Not like the other MC's that are an imitation
96) Or an animation, a cartoon to me
97) But when I'm finished, I'm sure that you are soon to see
98) Reality, my secret technique
99) Because I always speak with mentality
100) I put my title in your face, dare you to base
101) And if you try and come get it, yo I'mma show you who's with it
102) So if you know like I know, instead of messing around
103) Play like Roy Rogers and slooow doown
104) Just give yourself a break, or someone else will take
105) Your title, namely me, cause I'm homicidal
106) That means murder, cause I'm about to hurt a-
107) Nother MC, that try to get with me
108) I'll just break him and bake him and rake him
109) And take him and mold him and make him
110) Hold up the peace sign
111) As Salaam Alaikum!

Source: https://genius.com/Big-daddy-kane-aint-no-half-steppin-lyrics
-snip-
*This word is fully spelled out in these lyrics.

****
DEFINITIONS FOR CERTAIN VERNACULAR AND OTHER TERMS IN BIG DADDY KANE'S "AIN'T NO HALF STEPPIN'"
These numbers correspond to the order that the word, phrase, or saying (with that meaning) appear in this Hip Hop track.

1. "I'm with this" - I got this (I'm very confident about what I'm saying and/or doing.)
3. "drop lyrics" - rap; ("Spit bars" is a later [?] equivalent term for "drop lyrics".)
6. "ain't no half steppin" - in the context of this song, Big Daddy Kane is saying that he isn't going to to "half step" when it comes to being a MC (rapper) i.e. He's not going to be a "sucker MC"*.

"Half steppin' = to fail to do something the right way, fully and completely; to fail to give something your all (all your commitment and energy).

"Half steppin[g] refers to the way you do something, and not the way that you step (move).

Two contemporary African American Vernacular English (AAVE) that are the opposite of "half steppin(g) are to do something "to the max" and to "go all out". Both of these idioms mean to do something thoroughly and to the best of your ability.

Another contemporary AAVE antonym (opposite) for "half stepping" is to be "on point" (to do something exactly as it is meant to be done).
-snip-
Here are some urban dictionary.com definitions for "half step", "half steppin(g)", as well as an urban dictionary. com definition for "half-assed"- the latter being a term that is often given as an equivalent for "half-steppin":

From https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=half%20step
"half step
1. to start something with no intention of finishing.

2. to talk like you are going to get violent with someone and not follow through.

see that guy over there, he doesn't half step...he'll kick your ass"
by f&&koffanddie* March 27, 2005
-snip-
This “name” is fully spelled out in this entry.
-snip-
I believe that the first definition given in this entry is a closer fit for the use of "half steppin" in Big Daddy Kane's track.

**
From https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=half%20steppin
half-steppin'
(v) doing somthing half assed
yesterday i was so hung over i was half-steppin'.
by taylor March 15, 2005

**
https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=half%20assed
"half-assed
Doing an activity only partly, or without one's whole self involved; doing something without caring, or without putting anything into it.

I do my homework half-assed because I don't like the course.
by KaBookie August 28, 2003
-snip-
* Here's some information about the meaning of the term "sucker MC"
From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sucker_M.C.%27s
"Sucker M.C.'s" (also known as "Krush-Groove 1" or "Sucker M.C.'s (Krush-Groove 1)" and sometimes spelled as "Sucker MCs", "Sucker MC's" or "Sucker M.C.s") is a song by American hip hop group Run–D.M.C. It was first released in 1983 on a cassette as B-side to "It's like That". The two-sided release marked the start of Run-D.M.C.'s career as their first single.

An MC or M.C. is an abbreviation for Master of Ceremonies, a reference to rappers who controlled the microphones. Sucker is a derogatory street term for someone who believes he has skills, but who does not. It is derived from the common slang term sucker, relating to one who is gullible."...

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7. "Word" - an affirmative phrase that was widely used among certain African Americans, and later, by non-African Americans in the 1980s and 1990s. "Word" meant "Yeah. I agree [with what you just said]. Two other forms of this affirmative saying that had the same meaning were "Word up" and "Word to the mother".
-snip-
Read the information below for #25 "Word to the mother".

8. "Rappers steppin to me" = Rappers (MCs) coming up to me (in a confrontational manner)
9. "yo" = This usage may be the equivalent of the interjection "Hey".
11. " They can't get with me" = They can bother me.
12. "a BC date" = BC= before Christ, referring to a date from long long ago
17. "Hobbs" - I think this is a generic referent for "man", "dude"; It's not the same character as Hobbs in the contemporary movie series The Fast And The Furious which began in 2001.
17. "dope" = in this line means "illegal drugs"
20. "dope" = in this line means "very good"
23. "Asiatic" = Moorish Science Temple of America referent for Black Americans
From http://msta1913.org/MoorishHistory.html
"Prophet Noble Drew Ali taught the people termed ''Negroes'' in the United States are ''Asiatic'' and specifically that they are Moorish whose forefathers inhabited Northwest and Southwest Africa before they were enslaved in North America."

25. "cause they can't hang" = They can't keep up with me (in terms of actions and/or accomplishments)
25. "word to the mother" - an affirmative phrase used in the 1980s, 1990s that was an extension of the affirmative phrase "Word". "Word up" was another form of this affirmative saying.

Although "mother" in this saying may have been "mother Africa", I don't think that most people who used that saying got that "deep" into its meaning. Instead, I believe that "Word To The Mother" was used the same way and had the same meaning as the contemporary phrases "I know I'm right" and/or "You got that right".

However, here's an online comment about the phrase "word to the mother" and the corrupted [perhaps folk etymology] form of that phrase "word to your mother"]

From https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=word+to+your+mother
"Word to your mother"
"An anachronistic corruption of the phrase "word to the mother", which was a popular reference to Africa or "The Motherland" during the late 1980s Afrocentric movement. While the replacement of "the" with "your" effectively obliterated the term's Afrocentric roots, it continued to be used in the same manner, that is, to express agreement. Alternatively, the "your" could take on sinister connotations, implying that speaker was sexually intimate with the listener's mother, as in "say hi to your mom for me", or, in keeping with the whack terminology, "props to your mom, she's da bomb". Finally, the phrase might mean nothing at all, and be used to ineptly feign street cred, in the style of Vanilla Ice.
Jeff - "Given the uncertainty of today's market, I'm strongly considering increasing my portfolio's share of treasury bills."

Greg - "Word to your mother."

#word#word to your moms#mutha#mother#word up
by bluedevil July 20, 2006
-snip-

27. "when I roll on you rappers" = when I confront you; when I challenge you
31. "front" = pretend to be something you're not [in the context of this track, pretend to be a real MC]
32/33. "basing" = [in the context of this track] trying to act stupid like [?]
-snip-
Here's an urban dictionary.com entry that might fit this usage:

From https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=basin
Basin
A crackhead, also someone who does stupid things
1: hey have you seen that aaron kid? hes pretty basin
2: what'd he do?
3: he ran naked down the street!

#basin#crackhead#cokehead#coke#crack
by Anon1865 October 31, 2011
-snip-

33. "Friday the 13th/Jason; a very popular American horror movie/movie series that began in 1980; "Jason" is the main character who stalks and kills other people in those movies.
38. "walking papers" = papers notifying people that they have been fired from their employment; by extension, a saying that means that you are being giving notice that a relationship is ending (you are being "let go")
39. "take a walk" = [a command to] leave
43. "so dope" = so very good
46./.49 "emceeing"; "emcee" = "MC"; rapping; rapping
47. "my field in court" = in my league; as good as me ["court" here refers to a "basketball court"]
52. "perpetrator"= [in the context of this track], someone who pretends to be an MC, someone who pretends to be "down with" [a part of] Hip Hop culture
53. "fess"= confess
60. "ill" = great, excellent (the same highly complementary vernacular meaning as "sick")
68. "you can scalp my Cameo" = in the context of this track, "Cameo" means "hair".
-snip-
Read this excerpt from a comment exchange from that embedded video's discussion thread which explains that use of "Cameo" to mean "a high top fade", a particular type of hair style in the 1980s [and 1990s?] which was mostly worn by [Black American] males

2002Socal, 2016
"that high top fade tho... east coast katz was rockin them joints back in the day."

**
Reply
TheEdub1, 2016
"Hell yeah we was rockin the high top fades all day. But really it comes from the dude from the group Cameo."

**
TheEdub1, 2016
"+MISSDD Kane wasn't first it was Larry Blackmon of Cameo. The high top fade used to be called Cameo cut because of him. Kane even says in this song "You can cut my Cameo and I'll still have strength"."
-snip-

87. "def" rhyme = in the context of this track, a very good rhyme
93. "Letter Man" = my guess is that "Letter Man" refers to "The Adventures of Letterman was an animated skit that was a regular feature on the 1971–1977 PBS television series The Electric Company.
Created by Mike Thaler, this super hero spoof debuted during The Electric Company's second season, and quickly became one of the show's most popular segments. There were 60 Letterman segments produced from 1972 to 1976." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Adventures_of_Letterman

95. "dare you to base"= act stupid [?] [Read #33 above]
103. "Play like Roy Rogers" and slooow doown" = "Roy Rogers (born Leonard Franklin Slye, November 5, 1911 – July 6, 1998) was an American singer and actor who was one of the most popular Western stars of his era. Known as the "King of the Cowboys", he appeared in over 100 films and numerous radio and television episodes of The Roy Rogers Show". https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roy_Rogers

-snip-
I vaguely recall watching the "Roy Rogers" show on television, but don't remember if he was known for saying "Go slow".

110) Hold up the peace sign- from https://emojipedia.org/victory-hand/ ✌️ Victory Hand
"Most commonly known as a ✌️ Peace Sign, but traditionally called as a Victory Hand. Two fingers held up on one hand making a V sign."

111) "As Salaam Alaikum!" - Arabic greeting and farewell saying [English translation: "Peace be unto you".

Click https://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2017/02/the-egyptian-word-hotep-its-various.html for a pancocojams post about how this Arabic greeting/farewell was used by Muslim and non-Muslim African Americans in the 1980s and 1990s and was later changed to "Peace" and "Peace out".

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Visitor comments are welcome.

Monday, May 22, 2017

English Translations For Non-English Words In Alpha Blondy's Reggae Song "Jerusalem"

Edited by Azizi Powell

This pancocojams post showcases the Reggae song "Jerusalem" by Alpha Blondy.

Information about Alpha Blondy is also included in this post along with video, song lyrics, and English translations of the non-English words in his 1986 song "Jerusalem".

The content of this post is presented for religious, cultural, and aesthetic purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

Thanks to Alpha Blondy for his musical legacy. Thanks also to all those who are quoted in this post and thanks to the publishers of these examples on YouTube examples.

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INFORMATION ABOUT ALPHA BLONDY
From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alpha_Blondy
Alpha Blondy (born Seydou Koné; 1 January 1953 in Dimbokro,[1] Ivory Coast) is a reggae singer and international recording artist. Many of his songs are politically and socially motivated, and are mainly sung in his native language of Dioula, French and in English, though he occasionally uses other languages, for example, Arabic or Hebrew.

Childhood
First son of a family of eight children, Seydou Koné was raised by his grandmother, growing up in what he described as "among elders", which later was to have a big impact on his career. In 1962, Alpha Blondy went to join his father in Odienné, where he spent ten years, attended Sainte Elisabeth High School, and was involved in the Ivory Coast students movement. He formed a band in high school, but this hobby affected his schooling and he was expelled due to poor attendance. His parents sent him to study English in Monrovia, the capital city of neighboring country Liberia in 1973. He spent thirteen months there and moved to the United States to improve his English.[2]

College in the USA
In 1974, Seydou moved to New York where he majored in English at Hunter College, and later in the Columbia University American Language Program because he wanted to be a teacher. In New York he met Rastafarians for the first time, and was also able to see concerts by Jamaican artists such as Burning Spear. Seydou was involved in multiple altercations in New York and returned to the Ivory Coast, where he got into even more trouble until he met up with one of his childhood friends, Fulgence Kassi, who had become a noted television producer. This was the beginning of his real career as a musician, and he began to use the name "Alpha Blondy".[3]

Musical career
After various TV shows for Kassi, Blondy recorded his first solo album in 1982, entitled Jah Glory. This album was to have enormous success and would become later a symbol of resistance because of the song "Brigadier Sabari," which documents his experience of being arrested in Abidjan in the 1980s and his subsequent mistreatment by the police.[4] Alpha Blondy became a big star in Abidjan with his African twist of Reggae music, becoming in the eyes of his fans "the Bob Marley of Africa".[5] Alpha Blondy is spiritual, political and positive just like Marley himself, and recorded a cover of Bob Marley's song "War". In order to reach more people with his message, he chose to sing in many languages: English; French; Baoulé, and his native language – Dioula.[5] Later, he also brought new instrumentation to his brand of reggae such as the violin and cello."...

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SHOWCASE VIDEO AND SONG LYRICS: ALPHA BLONDY - JERUSALEM live



Marvin Mulenga,Published on Jul 18, 2012

JERUSALEM LYRICS
Barouh atat adonai (barouh atat adonai)
Barouh aba yeroushalaim (barouh aba yeroushalaim)

From the bible to the coran
Revelation in jerusalem
Shalom salamalekoum
You can see christians, jews, and muslins
Living together and praying amen
Let's gives thanks and praises

Barouh atat adonai
Barouh aba yeroushalaim
Barouh atat adonai
Barouh aba yeroushalaim
Jerusalem here i am
Jerusalem je t'aime
Jerusalem here i am
Jerusalem je t'aime

Israela yakirati
Israela yakirati
Ani ohev otarh
Israela yakirati

Israela yakirati
Israela yakirati
Israela yakirati
Ani ohev otarh
Israela yakirati

From the bible to the coran
Revelation time
Shalom salamalekoum
You can see christians, jews, and muslins
Living together and praying amen
Let's gives thanks and praises

Israela yakirati
Israela yakirati
Ani ohev otarh
Israela yakirati

Israela yakirati
Israela yakirati
Israela yakirati
Ani ohev otarh
Israela yakirati

Jerusalem here i am
Jerusalem je t'aime
Jerusalem here i am
Jerusalem je t'aime

****
ALPHA BLONDY -JERUSALEM (in English only, except for the place name "Jerusalem" and the Hebrew word "amen"; The words in brackets are unspoken, but what I believe completes those particular lyrics)

Blessed are You, Lord.
Blessed is the one who comes [to] Jerusalem.
Blessing are You, Lord.
Blessed is the one who comes [to] Jerusalem.

From the Bible to the Koran, [it is said that]
Revelation [occurs] in Jerusalem
Peace, Peace be unto you.
You can see Christians, Jews, and Muslims [in Jerusalem]
Living together and praying amen.
Let's gives thanks and praises.

Blessed are You, Lord.
Blessed is the one who comes [to] Jerusalem.
Blessing are You Lord.
Blessed is the one who comes [to] Jerusalem.

Jerusalem, here I am.
Jerusalem, I love you.
Jerusalem, here I am.
Jerusalem, I love you.

Dear Israel,
Dear Israel,
Dear Israel,
I love you
Dear Israel.

Dear Israel,
Dear Israel,
Dear Israel,
I love you
Dear Israel.

From the Bible to the Koran [it is said that it is]
Revelation time.
Peace, Peace be unto you.
You can see Christians, Jews, and Muslims
Living together and praying "Amen".
Let's gives thanks and praises.

Dear Israel,
Dear Israel,
Dear Israel,
I love you,
Dear Israel.

Dear Israel,
Dear Israel,
Dear Israel,
I love you,
Dear Israel.

Jerusalem, here I am.
Jerusalem, I love you.
Jerusalem, here I am.
Jerusalem, I love you.

-snip-
I think that the line "Blessed is the one who comes [to] Jerusalem" means "Anyone who comes to Jerusalem is blessed." (i.e. any visitor, and person who moves to Jerusalem). But, at the same time, "the one who comes to Jerusalem" may also be a referent for Jesus.

These translations to English are from the source material given in the next section. Additions, corrections, and comments are welcome.

****
ENGLISH MEANINGS FOR NON- ENGLISH WORDS IN ALPHA BLONDY'S SONG "JERUSALEM"
From http://sci.lang.narkive.com/myPdGOOJ/song-lyrics-in-hebrew
[discussion] song lyrics in Hebrew, posted by Raymond Roy, 2004
"Hello all semiticists,

The Ivorian reggae singer Alpha Blondy sings a song called 'Jerusalem',
with lyrics in French, Arabic and Hebrew.

Could someone translate the Hebrew parts for me? ...

Response posted by Peter Daniels, 2004
..."Baruch ata Adonai (blessed are you, Lord)

...
BAROUH ABA YÉROUSHALAIM.
(maybe) Baruch ha-ba' Yerushalaim (blessed is the one who comes,
Jerusalem)

...
SHALOM SALAMALEKOUM.
Heb [Hebrew] (peace) Ar [Arabic] (peace be unto you)"...

****
"Barouh atat adonai" (Barukh ata Adonai)
From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Jewish_prayers_and_blessings
".... Most [Hebrew] prayers and blessings can be found in the Siddur, or prayer book. This article addresses Jewish liturgical blessings, which generally begin with the formula: ברוך אתה ה' אלהינו, מלך העולם...
Transliteration: Barukh ata Adonai Eloheinu, melekh ha`olam...
Translation: "Blessed are You, LORD our God, King of the universe..."

****
"Israela yakirati"
From https://mymemory.translated.net/en/Hebrew/English/israela-yakirati
"yakirati = Querida"
-snip-
Google translate Spanish to English = "Dear"]

ani ohev otach Israel yakirati = Te Amo Querida Israel
-snip-
Google translate Spanish to English = "I love you dear Israel"

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"Ani ohev otarh"
from http://www.wikihow.com/Say-Love-in-Hebrew
Learn the words for love in Hebrew:
"The noun "love" in Hebrew is ahavah, pronounced ah-hah-vah.
The verb "to love" is something different. It changes depending on your gender, and if you are saying "I love you" it changes depending on the gender of the person you are speaking to.
For a female to say "I love" it would be Ani Ohev et (ah-nee oh-hev-et)
For a male to say "I love" it would be Ani Ohev (ah-nee oh-hev)"

****
"Jerusalem je t'aime" - [French] Jerusalem I love you

****
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Sunday, May 21, 2017

Three Examples Of Lyrics For The Calypso Song "Stone Cold Dead In De Market" (also known as "He Had It Coming To Him" & Dead In De Market") with information, comments, & four selected YouTube examples

Edited by Azizi Powell

This pancocojams provides three versions of lyrics for the Calypso song "Murder In De Market" (also known as He Had It Coming To Him" and "Stone Cold Dead In The Market".

Information and comments about this song are included in this post along with four YouTube examples of this song performed by Gracie Barrie (1940s); Ella Fitzgerald/Louis Jordan (1946); Harry Belafonte and The Islanders (1960s), and Lorna Myers; 2010?).

In addition to presenting these lyrics and information, I'm also highlighting the use of the term "stone cold" in these songs.

The content of this post is presented for linguistic, cultural, entertainment, and aesthetic purposes. purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

Thanks to Lord Invader for composing and performing this song and thanks to the other Calypsonians for their adaptations of this song. Thanks also to Houdini and other singers for their renditions of these songs. In addition, thanks to members of the Mudcat online folk music discussion forum who are quoted in this post and thanks to the publishers of these examples on YouTube.

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This post serves as a companion to this January 31, 2017pancocojams post: https://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2017/01/what-susan-rice-meant-by-term-stone.html
What Susan Rice Meant by The Term "Stone Crazy" In Her Tweet About Trump's National Security Council & Other Comments About The Vernacular Use Of The Word "Stone"

That post quotes this entry from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/stone%E2%80%93cold:
"Definition of stone–cold: absolutely (stone–cold sober)

First Known Use of stone–cold: 1592

Definition of stone–cold for English Language Learners: completely or totally".
-snip-
While this post doesn't focus on the issues of spousal abuse and revenge murder, I recognize the significance of those issues in this song and in life itself.

****
SONG LYRICS
These lyrics are given as Example #1, Example #2, and Example #3.

I believe that the composition that is given as Example #1 is older than the composition that is given as Example #2. However, I'm not sure about this.

Example #1:
LYRICS: MURDER IN DE MARKET
(Lord Invader, 1939?)

Murder in de Market, murder.
Murder in de Market, murder.
Murder in de market, murder.
Betsy Thomas, she kill Payne stone dead.

Murder in de market, murder.
Murder in de market, murder.
Murder in de market, murder.
Betsy Thomas, she kill Payne stone dead.

Payne dead, Payne dead, stone dead.
Payne dead, Payne dead, stone dead.
Payne dead, Payne dead, stone dead.

Betsy Thomas she kill Payne stone dead.
"oh, I ain't kill nobody but me husband.
Oh, I didn't kill nobody but me husband.
Oh, I didn't kill nobody but me husband.

Oh, I ain't kill nobody but me husband,
So I could face de judge independent!

Murder in de market, murder.
Murder in de market, murder.
Murder in de market, murder.
Betsy Thomas she kill Payne stone dead.

De big Grand Session is tomorrow,
De big Grand Session is tomorrow,
De big Grand Session is tomorrow,
Betsy Thomas she kill Payne stone dead.

She ain't kill nobody but she husband,
Oh, she didn't kill nobody but she husband,
Oh, she ain't kill nobody but she husband,
Betsy Thomas, she kill Payne stone dead.

Murder in de market, murder.
Murder in de market, murder.
Murder in de market, murder.
Betsy Thomas kill Payne stone dead.

"Pp. 34-36, musical score, notated for voice, guitar, drums and bass.
Edric Connor, Songs from Trinidad, 1958, Oxford University Press.

A version sung by Young Tiger, 1953, is on youtube.

Discussed in Louise Cramer,"Songs of West Indian Negroes in the Canal Zone." California Folklore Quarterly, vol. 5, no. 3, July, 1946. (JSTOR)
This article (not seen) is the basis for assigning the song to Barbados, and has the story behind the song. (It may have the date of the event).

Rewritten and revised as "Stone Cold Dead in the Market" by Wilmouth Houdini, a calypso singer, in 1939,* an adaptation of "He Had it Coming" (another title), it was a hit for Ella Fitzgerald, Belafonte and others. See thread 34020 for the Belafonte version as posted by Joe Offer.
http://mudcat.org/thread.cfm?threadid=34020

Franklin Bruno, 2011, Popular Music and Society** vol. 34, issue 1, pp. 7-21.
http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a933307712
-snip-
posted on Mudcat discussion thread http://mudcat.org/thread.cfm?threadid=138235 by Q (Frank Staplin), 31 May 11 - 05:57 PM along with the following citation of locations: Barbados, Trinidad, Canal Zone of Panama"
-snip-
Pancocojams Editor: *According to the information given in Comment #3 of the Mudcat excerpt below, the information given in this sentence is incorrect. The corrected information is that Lord Invader composed and recorded this song is 1939 and Houdini, another Calypso singer (Calypsonian), recorded an adapted version of this song in 1946.

**This quote is given in this post after the Ella Fitzgerald/Louis Jordan sound file that is embedded below.

****
Example #2
STONE COLD DEAD IN THE MARKET
"(Frederick Hendricks; aka Lord Invader) [Pancocojams Editor's note: This could be Wilmouth Houdini's 1946 adaptation]

"She: He's stone cold dead in de market,
He's stone cold dead in de market,
He's stone cold dead in de market,
I kill nobody but me husband.

He: Last night I went out drinking,
When I came home I gave her a beating;
So she cotch up up de rolling pin,
And went to work on my head 'til she boshed it in.

I lie cold dead in de market,
Stone cold dead in de market,
I lie cold dead in de market,
She kill nobody but her husband

She: I lick him with de pot and de frying pan,
I lick him with de pot and de frying pan,
I lick him with de pot and de frying pan,
And if I kill him, he had it coming.

He's stone cold dead in de market,
He's stone cold dead in de market,
He's stone cold dead in de market,
I kill nobody but me husband.

He: My family is swearing to kill her,
My family is swearing to kill her,
She: His family is swearing to kill me,
And if I kill him, he had it coming.
He's stone cold dead in de market,

He: He lie cold dead in de market,
Stone cold dead in de market,
He lie cold dead in de market,
She kill nobody but her husband

She: There's one thing that I am sure
He ain't going to beat me no more
So I tell you that I doesn't care
If I was to die in de 'lectric chair

He's stone cold dead in de market,
He's stone cold dead in de market,
He's stone cold dead in de market,
I kill nobody but me husband.

He: (spoken): Hey, child, I'm goming back and bosh you on the head one more time
.
She: (spoken): No, no, man, you can't do dat

He's stone cold dead in de market,
He's stone cold dead in de market,
The criminal is stone cold dead in de market,
I kill nobody but me husband.


This source says the song was written by Frederick Hendricks, Northern Music/ASC
AP
Recorded by Harry Belafonte
Transcribed from "Ella Fitzgerald, 75th Birthday Celebration" (Decca CD) (duet w
ith Louis Jordan)

Another source attributes it to Wilmoth Houdini, 1946."

Source: http://mudcat.org/@displaysong.cfm?SongID=9478

****
Example #3:
LYRICS- MURDER IN THE MARKET
"As recorded by Young Tiger (George Browne) in 1953

Stone cold dead in de market,
Stone cold dead in de market,
Stone cold dead in de market,
Well, she killed nobody but she husband.

Yes, she hit him in de head wit' de fryin' pan,
She hit him in de head wit' de fryin' pan,
She hit him in de head wit' de fryin' pan,
And if she kill him, he had it comin'.

And so he's stone cold dead in de market,
Stone cold dead in de market,
Stone cold dead in de market,
Well, she killed nobody but she husband.

Last night he went out drinkin',
And den he came in and gave her a beatin' [not sure; recording has a glitch at this point]
So she picked up de rollin' pin,
And worked on his head till she bashed it in.

And now he's stone cold dead in de market,
Stone cold dead in de market,
Stone cold dead in de market,
Well, she killed nobody but she husband.

Now his family is swearin' to kill her,
His family is swearin' to kill her,
His family is swearin' to kill her,
So if she kill him, he had it comin'.

And now he's stone cold dead in de market, mother! [or "murder"?]
Stone cold dead in de market,
Stone cold dead in de market,
Well, she killed nobody but she husband."
-snip-
*These lyrics were transcribed by Jim Dixon from the recording on YouTube and posted on Mudcat 04 Jun 11 - 08:46 AM http://mudcat.org/thread.cfm?threadid=34020

Unfortunately, Young Tiger's sound file is no longer available on YouTube (as of the date of this pancocojams post, but probably earlier.)

****
SELECTED COMMENTS ABOUT "MUrDER IN DE MARKET" (also known as "STONE COLD DEAD IN THE MARKET" & "HE HAD IT COMING TO HIM"

Pancocojams's Editor: These selected comments are given in chronological order based on their publishing date. They are numbered in this post for referencing purposes only. I encourage you to read the entire discussion thread which also includes biographical information for and comments about Lord Invader.

My explanatory comments are given in parenthesis.

From http://mudcat.org/thread.cfm?threadid=34020
1. [This first comment refers to what this commenter alleges was an actual event that served as the story behind Lord Invader's song].

Subject: RE: Lyr Add: Murder in de Market (Caribbean)
From: MorwenEdhelwen1
Date: 01 Jun 11 - 02:13 AM

"Q, Betsy Thomas' murder of Thomas Payne occurred in the 1870s."

**
2. [This comment was written in response to Q's question about the citation of the 1870s date.]

Subject: RE: Lyr Add: Murder in de Market (Caribbean)
From: MorwenEdhelwen1
Date: 01 Jun 11 - 05:48 PM

"i have the songbook "Folk Songs of Barbados" collected by Trevor Marshall, Peggy McGeary, and Grace Thompson. They include the song and its melody, unfortunately no accompaniment :( and the date of the events, stating that "Betsy Thomas, the common-law mate of one Thomas Payne, allegedly murdered him during a quarrel". There is a mention of the song in Trinidadian songbooks. What I find interesting is how distanced the folk version is from the events, compared with "Stone Cold Dead in The Market", which is from a first-person perspective, and is, in my opinion, one of the best songs about battered woman syndrome ever, done before battered woman syndrome was ever named or recognised. Also in the case of murder ballads based on true stories, how does a person find information on the actual incident? Because some American murder ballads seem to have a large proportion of people on this forum who have information about the real incident."

**
3. [Q provides information about Lord Invader's composition of this song, including the original song title "He Had It Coming" and the composition date of 1939.]

Subject: RE: Lyr Add: Murder in de Market (Caribbean)
From: Q (Frank Staplin)
Date: 05 Jun 11 - 03:29 PM

"(Houidini's) "Stone Cold Dead describes a murder in Port-of-Spain's Grass Market in 1939. He recorded it himself in 1939 (as "He Had it Coming) but it got no popularity until Songstress Fitzgerald unearthed it......"

Time Magazine, Music: King of Calypso, Aug. 26, 1946. Unsigned article about Wilmoth Houdini (Edgar Leon St.-Clair his real name).

The 1939 incident may have been an unintentional copycat murder?"

-snip-
The information given in comment #3 above corrects the information given in https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stone_Cold_Dead_in_the_Market_(He_Had_It_Coming) about this song:
" "Stone Cold Dead in the Market (He Had It Coming)" is a 1946 song with lyrics and music by Wilmoth Houdini, a Trinidad and Tobago musician who had moved to the United States. It was recorded by Ella Fitzgerald and Louis Jordan and His Tympany Five on Decca and later included in the Ella Fitzgerald album Ella and Her Fellas. The single was the first of five singles that Louis Jordan would take to the number-one spot on the R&B Juke Box chart.[1] The song also reached number seven on the U.S. pop chart.[2] The B-side of the single, "Petootie Pie," was also an R&B chart hit peaking at number three. This song received later notoriety in the 2010s with the 2011 release of L.A. Noire in which this song is featured."

****
SHOWCASE EXAMPLES
Example #1 [Video]: STONE COLD DEAD IN THE MARKET (1940s)



silezukuk, Uploaded on Sep 24, 2009

Gracie Barrie [singer]

****
Example #2: [Sound File] : Ella Fitzgerald & Louis Jordan - Stone Cold Dead In The Market (He Had It Coming)



FunkyChez's channel, Uploaded on Jan 14, 2009
-snip-
Here's a review of this song as mentioned earlier in this post:
From http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03007766.2011.539807
Altmetric Articles
“Stone Cold Dead in the Market”: Domestic Violence and Americanized Calypso"
Franklin Bruno
Pages 7-21 | Published online: 10 Feb 2011

"Ella Fitzgerald and Louis Jordan's recording of “Stone Cold Dead in the Market” was a major R&B and pop hit in 1946. In narrating a woman's murder of her abusive husband from a sympathetic first-person point of view, the recording's depiction of domestic violence raises the question of how it achieved mass popularity in a cultural milieu that discouraged frank discussion of this topic. This paper attempts to account for this popularity by tracing the musical and lyrical changes between the hit recording and its sources, the Caribbean folk ballad “Payne Dead”/“Murder in the Market” and calypso performer Wilmouth Houdini's 1939 adaptation “He Had It Coming,” and by arguing that Fitzgerald and Jordan's adoption of an exoticized West African accent, as well as their public personae, effectively produced a comic and ethnic “mask” from behind which the song's subject matter could be presented with relative frankness."

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Example #3 [Sound File] MURDER IN DE MARKET (Barbados) - Lorna Myers



angarseno, Uploaded on Aug 10, 2010

A Juilliard School graduate, Lorna Myers' opera and concert career spanned Europe, the USA, Mexico and the Caribbean...

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Example #4 [Sound File]: Lie Stone Dead In The Market by Harry Belafonte & Islanders on early 1960's Mono Celebrity LP.



lrh1966, Uploaded on Jan 9, 2012

Celebrity record album# UT 154. We usually think of the 1956 classic, "The Banana Boat Song", and its signature lyric "Day-O" when we hear the name "Harry Belafonte", but this "King of Calypso" had many other songs and albums as well, including this lp album titled: "An Evening Of Folk Songs & Calypso - With The Islanders". He broke away from "RCA Victor" for a bit to do this lp with the obscure label, "Celebrity". Not sure of exact recording date, but estimate it in the 1960 to 1963 frame of time.

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Visitor comments are welcome.

The Golden Gate Quartet - "Elijah" (with barbershop quartet cover by JR & information about the Christian meaning of "Holy Fire")

Edited by Azizi Powell

This pancocojams post provides information about the Biblical prophet "Elijah" and showcases The Golden Gate Quartet's 1978 song "Elijah" and a contemporary barbershop quartet replication of that song by (JR).

My transcription of that song is given in this post.

The Addendum to this post provides information about the meaning of "holy fire".

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This post is part of an ongoing pancocojams series on religious songs that mention people from the Bible's Old Testament. Click the "songs and rhymes about Old Testament people" tag to find for more posts in this series.

The content of this post is presented for religious, cultural, and aesthetic purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

Thanks to The Golden Gate Quartet for their composition and 1978 performance of "Elijah". Thanks also to JR (StillJreming) for his contemporary replication of that song. Thanks also all those who are quoted in this post and thanks to the publishers of these examples on YouTube examples.

Special thanks to Gigi Erba from Italy for sending me a request for a transcription of The Golden Gate Quartet's "Elijah" and in doing so introducing me to both of the performances that are showcased in this post. I appreciate you request and your support of this pancocojams blog.

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INFORMATION ABOUT ELIJAH
From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elijah
"Elijah ...Hebrew... meaning "My God is Yahu/Jah"[1][2]) or Elias (/ᵻˈlaɪ.əs/; Greek: Ηλίας Elías; Syriac: ܐܸܠܝܼܵܐ‎ Elyāe; Arabic: إلياس or إليا, Ilyās or Ilyā) was a prophet and a miracle worker who lived in the northern kingdom of Israel[3] during the reign of Ahab (9th century BC), according to the Books of Kings in the Hebrew Bible. In 1 Kings 18, Elijah defended the worship of Yahweh over that of the Canaanite deity Baal. Yahweh also performed many miracles through Elijah, including resurrection (raising the dead), bringing fire down from the sky, and entering Heaven alive "by a whirlwind".[4] He is also portrayed as leading a school of prophets known as "the sons of the prophets".[5] After his death, Elisha his disciple and most devoted assistant took over his role as leader of this school. The Book of Malachi prophesies Elijah's return "before the coming of the great and terrible day of Yahweh",[6] making him a harbinger of the Messiah and of the eschaton in various faiths that revere the Hebrew Bible. References to Elijah appear in Ecclesiasticus, the New Testament, the Mishnah and Talmud, the Quran, the Book of Mormon, the Doctrine and Covenants, and Bahá'í writings.

In Judaism, Elijah's name is invoked at the weekly Havdalah ritual that marks the end of Shabbat, and Elijah is invoked in other Jewish customs, among them the Passover Seder and the brit milah (ritual circumcision). He appears in numerous stories and references in the Haggadah and rabbinic literature, including the Babylonian Talmud.
The Christian New Testament [7] describes how Elijah was thought, by some, to be the Messiah. Jesus makes it clear that John the Baptist is "the Elijah" who was promised to come in Malachi 4:5.[8] Elijah appears with Moses during the Transfiguration of Jesus. Elijah is also a figure in various Christian folk traditions, often identified with earlier pagan thunder or sky gods.

In Islam, Elijah appears in the Quran as a prophet and messenger of God, where his biblical narrative of preaching against the worshipers of Baal is recounted in a concise form.[9] Due to his importance to Muslims, Catholics and Orthodox Christians, Elijah has been venerated as the patron saint of Bosnia and Herzegovina since 1752."...

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SHOWCASE SONG
Example #1: The Golden Gate Quartet - Elijah



koliakaramasov Published on Mar 9, 2016

The Golden Gate Quartet

"All Over This World"
1978
-snip-
From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golden_Gate_Quartet
"The Golden Gate Quartet (a.k.a. The Golden Gate Jubilee Quartet) is an American vocal group. It was formed in 1931 and, with changes in membership, remains active. It is the most successful of all of the African-American gospel music groups who sang in the jubilee quartet style."...

Read more information about The Golden Gate Quartet on that page.

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Example #2: Elijah - (Barbershop Quartet with Guitar) - By JR



StillJreming, Published on Feb 15, 2013

It's been my desire for a long time to pay a tribute to the Barbershop Gospel Quartets that I grew up listening to and that vastly influenced my music. From the Golden Gate Quartet to the Jubalaires and even lesser known bands like the Dixieraires, they brought the Negro Spirituals out of the confines of the sweat and tears of the cotton fields, to make it a music of harmony and jubilation. I hope you enjoy, this is only a start! :-)

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LYRICS - GOLDEN GATE QUARTET - ELIJAH*
(as sung by The Golden Gate Quartet)

All:
God said He would
Send down fire
Send it down to Elijah
Said He would set the altar on fire
Yep, didn’t He say
Didn’t He say

God said He would
Send down fire
(Yeah)
Send it down to Elijah
Said He would set the altar on fire
Yep, didn’t He say
Didn’t He say

Other members of the quartet hum “Hmmm” after every line

Soloist :
Well, God know Elijah was a great man of God
They tell me that Elijah went wandering abroad
In a land of no food, no water to drink
But they tell me, Great God, he had the Bible strength
He got food from the raven and the dove
Water from the brooks so I heard
So he went struttin’ on down to Israel land
To tell them how long the family would stand.

All:
God said He would
Send down fire
Send it down to Elijah
Said He would set the altar on fire
Yep, didn’t He say
Didn’t He say

God said He would
Send down fire
(Yeah)
Send it down to Elijah
Said He would set the altar on fire
Yep, didn’t He say
Ah, didn’t He say

Soloist:
(Members of the quartet hum “Dooo” in the background after every line)
Great God!
Then old King Ahab he wanted to know
How could be so sure
Then Elijah said “Stop” Let me show
That a man of God ought to know
Just heard from the Master and got a request
Just build and have a contest
Ah build an altar all made of stone
And the mighty man began to moan.
And they cried “Baal”

All:
Send down the fire
(Oh!)
Send the fire
Oh, send the fire
Send the fire from the sky

(Woah! Call them!)
Send the fire
(Woah! Call them!)
Send the fire
Well, call a little louder.
Oh, won’t you call them.

Some people sleepin.
Won’t you send the fire from the sky.

Soloist:
Members of the quartet hum “oooo” throughout
From morning to evening they did cry
Tryin to bring down fire from the sky
Then Elijah callin from freedom land
to the Rose of Sharon, the God on high
Then lightning came down from the sky
And struck the altar with a burning fire
And the people standing heard him cry

God said He would

All:
God said He would
Send down fire

(Said He would)
Send it down to Elijah

(Said He would)
Set the altar on fire
Didn’t He say
Didn’t He say
-snip-
*Transcription by Azizi Powell from the Golden Gate Quartet recording that is found above. Additions and corrections are welcome.

Pancocojams interjections by one or more members of the Quartet are given in parenthesis and performance instructions are given in italics.

The lyrics for both renditions of this songs are basically the same except for some interjections such as "Whoo".

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ADDENDUM- THE CHRISTIAN MEANING OF THE TERM "HOLY FIRE"
From https://www.gotquestions.org/Holy-Spirit-fire.html
"Question: "How is the Holy Spirit like a fire?"

Answer: The Bible describes God as “a consuming fire” (Hebrews 12:29), so it is not surprising that fire often appears as a symbol of God’s presence. Examples include the burning bush (Exodus 3:2), the Shekinah glory (Exodus 14:19; Numbers 9:15-16), and Ezekiel’s vision (Ezekiel 1:4). Fire has many times been an instrument of God’s judgment (Numbers 11:1, 3; 2 Kings 1:10, 12) and a sign of His power (Judges 13:20; 1 Kings 18:38).

For obvious reasons, fire was important for the Old Testament sacrifices. The fire on the altar of burnt offering was a divine gift, having been lit originally by God Himself (Leviticus 9:24). God charged the priests with keeping His fire lit (Leviticus 6:13) and made it clear that fire from any other source was unacceptable (Leviticus 10:1-2).

… At the very beginning of the New Testament, the Holy Spirit is associated with fire. John the Baptist predicts that Jesus will be the One to “baptize you with the Holy Spirit and with fire” (Matthew 3:11). When the Holy Spirit began His ministry of indwelling the early church, He chose to appear as “tongues of fire” resting on each of the believers. At that moment, “all of them were filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other tongues as the Spirit enabled them” (Acts 2:3-4).”...

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