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Thursday, February 21, 2019

"Passing For White" - A Today Television Show Segment About A Woman Whose Mixed Race Mother Passed As White (videos & comments)

Edited by Azizi Powell

This pancocojams post presents two video clips from a Megyn Kelly segment on the Today television show of a woman whose mixed race mother passed as White.

This post also includes selected comments from ONE OF these videos' discussion thread that focus on the experience of "passing for white".

The content of this post is presented for socio-cultural purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

Thanks to Gail Lukasik and her relatives who appeared in that segment for sharing their story and thanks to all those who are quoted in this post. Thanks to the publishers of these videos on YouTube.

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SHOWCASE VIDEOS
Video #1: Meet The Woman Who Learned That Her Mother Passed As White | Megyn Kelly TODAY



TODAY, Published on Feb 5, 2018

Megyn Kelly TODAY welcomes Gail Lukasik, whose book, “White Like Her,” recounts how she uncovered her mother’s secret: that she was keeping her mixed-race heritage hidden even from her own husband. She recounts her mother’s reaction: “Promise me you will never tell anyone until after I die.”

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Video #2: Woman Whose Mother Passed As White Introduces Her Mixed-Race Family Members | Megyn Kelly TODAY



TODAY, Published on Feb 5, 2018

As Megyn Kelly continues her discussion with Gail Lukasik, who uncovered that her mother hid her mixed-race heritage, Lukasik introduces a half-uncle and half-cousin, family members she only recently realized she had. Stephanie Frederic, Lukasik’s half-cousin, says that when she was young, people often asked: “So what are you guys?”

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SELECTED COMMENTS
These comments are from the discussion thread for the video given as #2 above. Most of these selected comments focus on the experience of "passing" for White in the United States.

Numbers have been added for referencing purposes only. All of these comments are from 2018.

1. Ru T
"This is pretty typical in a lot of African American families, mine included.........some of it you just don't talk about it put of respect for grandparents or parents until they pass....just as she stated her mother request..........and more and more people are finding out through DNA they are not who they thought they were."

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REPLY
2. Al Person
"So true they were always Greek, Italian or Spanish.... Then they realise nope I'm black"

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REPLY
3. Ru T
"Al Person no, the one i like the most from them especially if they have darker features is, "I have Native American Indian in me" ......yeh, righr....check that DNA!!!"

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REPLY
4. talks with kin-Eee, 2018
"Mv family was the same way except my grandmother did not wanna identify as white !!"

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REPLY
5. mensa517
"you're so right, i'm still trying to pry secrets from my mom she refuses to give-----NOT NEW.....and it doesn't matter until they come out of the shadows, including the famous celebrities who have been hiding behind this veil of lies ....and there are many"

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REPLY
6. Aisha Lee
"My family has a record of passing as white too. My great grandmother was one of the few that didn't -- every one of her kids and grandkids turned out extremely fair though (including myself!) Makes me wonder which white person around me might actually be a relative lol"

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REPLY
7. Ella Rawson
"Aisha Lee Same, my grandad was always told his dark skin came from his half native american father but he found out his mother was also half maori but passed as white, and she was mean to my grandad because he was the darkest skinned sibling which is messed up. My grandmother was mixed too and her mother would put her down for looking too "coloured". Even today there are still people who think looking whiter makes you better and it's really sad :("

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REPLY
8. Lillie Herold
"Ru T Yes, it is very typical. My Father's Mother Dif Not Pass For White, But Could. Her Sister And Sis Daughter Moved To New Orleans And Did Pass. My Family Has Colors All over The Color Spectrum."

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REPLY
9. 631knm
"mspinkytee You are sadly mistaken if you think this does NOT happen in the majority of AA families!!!!!! ......... It’s VERY common!!!"

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REPLY
10. Atir X
"Ru T - You are so right about this. My grandfather was half white. His father was a white man his mother was a black woman of some mixed ancestry and they had twin boys. They were not married and it was an illicit Affair in the south we back in the thirties and of course my grandmother had to get out of town because everyone in that small Mississippi town would have known what happened once he saw those boys. But no one could get my grandfather to discuss anything about his father and his blood lineage. The only way we knew was from his half-sister and his mother when she was alive. But my father [h]is sun and including me have tried to get that info out of him and he went to his grave never talking about it.:

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REPLY
11. Richard Myles
"Black people could never pass as white...only mixed people who have white ancestry could pass as full white. Italians, Greeks, Spaniards are also mixed with black...so they are not full white either."

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REPLY
12. Ru T
"Richard Myles when we say pass as whites, it is by looks, of course not biologically or by the English standard blood percentage......... you hide that part and pray the truth is not discovered.......... hence this woman’s mother’s story."

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REPLY
13. Lisa Morgan
"It was an “open secret” in my family that a great uncle passed for white. Very recently his grandson discovered out his true heritage and contacted the African-American side of his family. He’s a lovely gentleman and has been welcomed into the family."

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REPLY
14. Davis Jones
"Aisha Lee ..My great grandpa passed for White... The story goes that he would slip into Klan meetings to see what they were planning to do and go warn the black people."

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REPLY
15. Martine Shamzin
"You never HAVE to do anything. Just as black people never HAD to pass as white. They did it to get jobs, and to get more respect. It is always a choice, as is everything we do. But it is sad that someone would be in a position that simply having different skin color would afford them a better chance at being accepted or hired. Societal racism is always bad, no matter which race is being put down."

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16. Stephanie Carr
"Very thought provoking video. My grandfather used to pass for white to play cards in white-only establishments. Unfortunately, it got him killed..very sad. Even sadder is that I never got to meet him..."

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17. Mark Keller
"My great grandmother could pass for White and often did so to buy things that she couldn't get in Black stores."

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REPLY
18. Monica Beal
"I don’t think my grandparents ever shopped at just black or white stores . Some people say my grandma looks white. Her family is mixed race as well. They couldn’t eat in restaurants growing up . Like that’s where drive thru windows come from . They were windows for ppl who were black and of other color ethnicities . So they could order food and not come in the restaurants. The restaurants owned by white people were all kind of like clubs in Greenwood, Ms . You had to have a password to get in but you had black people as waiters and dishwashers. So black ppl had house restaurants so they could have the same experience we have today and be welcomed some of them didn’t integrate until 1997 . Don’t think this is just MS . My dad says he remembers going to the grocery store. Black and white had to wait in the same line , but they had different water fountains and restrooms . They had this stuff going in Maryland and everywhere else. They used to spit on interracial couples during that time in Maryland. Also one part of md used to be were blacks could go to school and one area where Whites could go. My high school teacher At Montgomery Blair for my junior year was talking about that . How it was at one time in the silver spring and Rockville area somewhere ."

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REPLY
19. Kristina Depp
"Monica Beal Black Americans owned businesses, hospitals, post offices and every thing we needed including real clubs not house clubs when they were left alone and not murdered. Read about Black Wallstreet and the cities Black Americans built before they were destroyed by jealous whites"

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REPLY
20. Jim Hawkins
"They were not destroyed out of jealousy. They were destroyed as had they been allowed to thrive and grow like other businesses, Blacks would have in this time fairly substantial financial foundation. Also, the notion of Blacks opening real businesses would have been commonplace had these first generation enterprises succeeded. The violent and vitriolic destruction of those early Black businesses were meant to send a message, "No matter what you do, we can and will destroy it and there isn't one thing you can do about without risking your live or the lives of your family"."

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REPLY
21. Ming Song
"Mark Keller what were the things that couldn’t buy in black stores?"

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REPLY
22. mali carter
"Ming Song fresh meat/produce. Fine clothes. Etc."

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REPLY
23. Jasmine Valiente
"My great grandmother passed as white to get into the only school in their community"

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REPLY
24. Styles By Deanna Lynette
"Mark Keller Wow! My grandmother told me stories of her doing the same thing. She said it just made life a little easier in those days. She said she would do it when she wanted to shop in stores, eat at restaurants and sit in the front of the bus. It’s amazing the bravery they had!"

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REPLY
25. Paris Jones Kelly
"Yes my family did this too"

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REPLY
26. dancingnature
"Mark Keller mine did too. She went to see a white family friend in the hospital and passed as a family member. She lied because her friend was dying and she wanted to see her"

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REPLY
27. reshonda parker
"California Mountain Art And Life I agree! It’s sad to me that people can act so ignorant. It’s a fact that black people were treated horribly and back in those days lighter skinned black people who could “ pass” did. It’s not because they wanted to, they had to! Color of our skin was life and death! No one can tell anyone about THEIR family or family history. It’s crazy to tell someone they’re lying as if you were there and know lol. One thing that has stood the test of time has been ignorance. That is t going anywhere anytime soon!"

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REPLY
28. Ashajhunai' Jones is the xjcj, zye
"Same and when she would tell us about it, it made me cry"

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REPLY
29. Alicia Morris
"My grandma is very fair with green eyes. Easily passed as white until she opened her mouth and that thick Jamaican accent came out lol"

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REPLY
30. Skye Moon
"LOL She was a part time passer. That's what they called them. The ones who pass only in situations that benefit them but live as black all other times."

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REPLY
31. Demar Horton
"Mark Keller my grandmother could have pass for white but she married a black man and she lived in the south they probably saw her as a white women it was dangerous for them 80 years ago you have a white looking women married too a black man"

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REPLY
32. Demar Horton
"Mark Keller my grandfather also looked like a white man blue eyes white skin and racist in his own way too other black people any time you hate your own dark black grandchildren I knew he had a lot of white blood he always say they hate us but he used too come off like he hated me forreal"

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REPLY
33. Jim Hawkins
"There was a wider variety of quality offered in White stores. That is to say that you could get the range of inexpensive to very expensive. For a Black store back then to offer comparable variety would have cost more as they were charged the "Black Tax" which was an additional charge levied upon Black business owners for getting "above themselves" and competing with White merchants. The cost of quality merchandise for a White merchant was always less as a Black merchant would be forced to pay more and either take the hit on profits or adjust their price to include the Black Tax, which then of course made the product more expensive for Blacks to buy. Mark Keller's grandmother passing saved them money. In my family we are Black and Irish, many of my older relatives passed to get jobs, decent homes , business loans, etc. Pretty much what every White person was getting as a matter of course, they had to engage in deception and self degradation to get. But they were willing to do so as their fair skin enabled them to situate our family to have some advantages."

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REPLY
34. Tori Volasgis
"Same. My great grandma passed as white as well."

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REPLY
35. Keep Rocking!
"Pssh. If she can pass as white, she AIN'T BLACK!"

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REPLY
36. Rae Neumann
"@Keep Rocking! well many people who can pass are the generational mixed Black people. Nowadays many who want to pass can't because they are biracial b/w but don't appear as white. So most people can see the Black in them. And some so badly wish they could be white, and hate their blackness."

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REPLY
37. MeJane
"Rae Neumann, these bi-racial people who you are referring to, that "hate their blackness", you've talked with them, and they've told you this? Or is that your opinion of them based on their actions, the way they live, etc?"

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REPLY
38. Rae Neumann
"MeJane I know one who said they didn't want to be Black, and would not date another biracial person because its possible that they could have a child who is Black in appearance. I know another who told me she don't consider herself Black because she only grew up around white people and she don't associate with her Black side. She believes they should create another group called mixed, that way she wouldn't have to acknowledge white nor Black."

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REPLY
39. Benita Jones
"I understand. My grandfather looked white (really sort of Italian) and was a mechanic. He never officially passed but just left them guessing or didn't clear it up for them. He married a black woman and was told by some whites that he should pass and pass off his wife and daughters (light but not white) as Indian (Native American). He didn't but in the late 1930s and 1940s, was able to have vehicle repair contracts with major companys. I'm sure someone who made the arrangment knew. Might have even been the white part of his family. But there was no uproar of anything because most with the companies knew he had some "colored boys" to come out and do the work on the trucks but assumed D was white."

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40. Debbie Johnson
"My grandmother could've passed as well but didnt. She would visit her half white siblings all the time with my dad in tow. But he said they couldn't go in the house because they were too dark. So they waited for her in the car. Her white father also treated her like a farm mule while her white half siblings (who were also illegitimate) got to play. So no I don't fault this woman for trying to make a better life for herself but I probably would've chosen someone a tad more tolerant. Can you imagine how she felt every time he used the n word or talked crap about blacks? Ugh that's something I wouldn't been able to live with"

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41. 2XtremeRKO
"I found out my nan was mixed race in my late teens when she told me about he grandfather after her brother mentioned we had African heritage but he didn't know what part of Africa because of the slave trade I couldn't believe it my nan never mention it or spoke about it. I then asked her questions and she told me that when she was younger family members told her she was lucky because she could pass as white because she had blonde hair and blue eyes. She told me about the racist abuse her family members suffered and how her uncle was frown away at sea when he died serving in the armed forces because of the colour of his skin. Recently I done ancestry DNA to find out what part of Africa my great great grandfather came from and he's Nigerian I wish my nan was still alive so I could have told her that."

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42. Tanya Blanchard
"Wow! My father's mother did the same thing Gail's mom did. For 2 generations no one knew. I asked when I was little, I was told they weren't important. I too have birth certificates with the word Malotto in the Race spot. Had a Cousin that did some Genealogy that said my Great Grandparents we're Cherokee, French & Black Irish. My Grandmother always wore White Foundation, while her skin tone was always a dark tan. My parents families are all from Louisiana. This was an Awesome Discovery. Gail has more family, which is so Cool. God Bless Them All. Cheers!!"

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43. Jacque Renee
"My maternal great grandfather is white and paternal great grandma is white, my grandma can pass and when I had my children yes me being a dark skinned black woman both my children were very light complexion and both worth blue eyes than turned hazel after 3-6mths. The kids father was like what’s going on and so was I. I knew I hadn’t cheated but dad thought so and asked for dna Test. bcse he is dark also. Yes, my kids took after my white great grands. But bcse during those times of my great grands history they gave my grand father up for adoption So the white great grandmother didn’t want to raise her biracial kid so we didn’t know she were white bcse black People raised them. My grand dad had gray eyes and it came out his white mother gave him away bcse she got pregnant st by a black man thus he was biracial or black and he hated her for that. And my grandma dad was a white man. That my mom knew as kid growing up bcse my grandma stayed with her dad when my mom was born But I wanted to know why my children looked like this and began asking questions since grandpa was the only other person with light eyes and fair skin. Then Mom told me about her white grand dad. Crazy. Blacks just weren’t proud to claim the white parts of our history just as much as white weren’t proud to claim the black parts🤷🏽‍♀️"

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42. Wyoming Oregon
"I'm from Louisiana and I am creole....but I am very DARK. My mother and her people (creole) is very fair skinned and some look like a white person. And in 2018, there are STILL these same people on my mother's side that are STILL passing for white. I see it ALL THE TIME. There is also a community...a little town not far from me where these highly light skinned folks go into the world and pass for white. Its painful to watch when you know the reasons why they do this.."

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43. saboi mwinda
"'Passing as White' and not 'passing as Black.' Could the archaic one drop rule be one to blame for this double standard? As someone who grew up in central Africa, a black person was clearly described to me as someone who is the closest to or is 100% Bantu. People are biracial or of mixed heritage are not seen as black by all villagers and urban dwellers of African countries because clearly they are not due to their phenotype i.e European features such as a thin long nose, long European type hair and European type skin color. The confusion about race description in America is incomprehensibly to people who live other parts of the world."

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44. Monica Dillard
"There are many, many white families like this because there were many Blacks passing for centuries."

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45. Tamara Jatti
"My father is a black south Asian man. My mother looks like the same skin colour that most people associate with actresses in Bollywood movies. My brother is black like my father and I am lighter skinned. Colorism was a huge problem in my extended family. It’s further complicated by the fact that there are some people in the family that looked very east Asian, a few people in the family who are clearly mixed with white, and every conceivable thing you can imagine in that one huge extended family. All of them are Punjabi from India. My dad wasn’t born in Canada, but he came over when he was very young and he’s completely Canadian. My mother was raised in India. A bunch of my dad‘s relatives of his generation, were either born in Canada or came over very very young. Some of us are brown, others are black. Still, the colourism was just a massive problem in my extended family. It bothered me then, and it still bothers me now."

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46. Jelly Kay
"My friend's father was a white Frenchman and her mother was a black Mauritanian. My friend was white skinned - pale as alabaster, with red hair that was semi afro in texture. She had a wider nose and full mouth, but people would consider her white. He brother was dark skinned and looked 100 percent black. Just random genes all round. Nothing more. All bleed red. All hurt, love, get sick, die. We're one race - the human race."

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[Pancocojams Editor's Note: This commenter is quoting the uncle who appeared in this television segment.]
47. evileyez504
" "We lived in an Italian neighborhood, there was an Asian man, he was family,we didn't care, we just knew Dad" , to me this says, they did know, but were passing as Italian, possibly Sicilian. You don't grow up in an Italian neighborhood as a black family and just be able "not care", especially in those days"

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REPLY
48. Rebecah Clifton
"I think he meant that as a child he was unaware. In any case, it's sad that anyone ever had to 'pass'. My great great something gma, in Kentucky, passed. She was black and Native American a common combo in that region during Civil War days. Her mom though was light skinned mixed race and gma apparently looked 'white enough'. Society is a mess due to racism and hatred regarding race. I really hate it, and am glad that my grandkids have never mentioned anyone's skin color. When the topic arises as they get older, they will be taught what they are taught now; fairness, LOVE, that we are all the same and LOVE. Good and bad people come in all ranges of color."

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49. PoGirl
"Just like my mom is racially mixed, well so am I, finally got my DNA and didn't inherit much but again, in our family everyone looked different. My gramps looked like a black man, my mom told me as a teen when I found hidden pictures of her dad and asked who he was. She said "didn't you know I was a passer?" I asked her what that meant and she told me someone who passes for white. She looks spanish, which we are too. I didn't think anything of it. Most of my friends were mixed. I really never really knew many all white folk."

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50. pamela harris
"I’m called black , DNA claims I’m 61percent European American . I’m great grandfather was with a black woman , Not married but had two children . You can see my picture and know people don’t believe me . You never know , you just never know what our people went through . Times were very bad for people of color ."

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Tuesday, February 19, 2019

Video Of Ghana's Harmonious Chorale At The World Choir Games (2018)

Edited by Azizi Powell

This pancocojams post showcases a video of Ghana's Harmonious Chorale at the World Choir Games (2018).

This post also provides information about the World Choir Games and the Harmonious Chorale.

The content of this post is presented for cultural, entertainment, and aesthetic purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

Thanks to all those who are associated with Ghana's Harmonious Choir. Thanks to all those who are quoted in this post and thanks to the publisher of this video on YouTube.

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SHOWCASE VIDEO: HARMONIOUS CHORALE AT WORLD CHOIR GAMES 2018



HARMONIOUS CHORALE - GHANA, Published on Nov 14, 2018

Harmonious Chorale at the 10th World Choir Games. Ghana's sole participant at the world choir games crowned winners at World Choir Games. The choir won the newly created category C28 (Champions Competition). Harmonious Chorale Ghana picked up three gold diploma; emerging as the overall winner in one of the category from the open competition.
-snip-
The first song that the Harmonious Chorale sang in this video (beginning at 2:33) is an arrangement of "Lift Every Voice And Sing), which is known as "the African American National Anthem". Click https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xal0GigaoPQ for a full rendition of this song from this Ghanaian choir.

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INFORMATION ABOUT THE WORLD CHOIR GAMES
From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Choir_Games
"The World Choir Games (formerly named the Choir Olympics) is the largest global choral festival and competition.[1] Organised by the Interkultur Foundation for amateur choirs from all over the world, regardless of their country of origin, race, genre of music or artistic ambitions, its motto is "Singing together brings nations together".[2] The Games originated from the idea to bring people together through singing in peaceful competition, showing that unity of nations through the arts can be effectively and illustratively demonstrated and challenged.[3] The focus of the Games is on participation above winning, and it aims to inspire people to "experience the strength of interaction, challenging personality and community equally by singing together".[4]

The most recent host of the Games was Tshwane, South Africa from 4 - 14 July 2018, and the next edition of the Games will be co-hosted by Antwerp and Ghent, Belgium from 5 – 15 July 2020.[5][6]

General
The Games are hosted biennially (every even year) in a pre-select city across the globe, where choirs compete in selected categories. In 2012, for instance, there were 23 categories,[7] and in 2016 there were 29 categories, among them "Senior Choirs" and "University Choirs".[8] The Games consist of competitions in two classes (Champions and Open), festival concerts, artistic workshops, and various ceremonies.[9] During the competition, choirs compete for gold, silver, bronze, or "Successful Participation" awards. Medals are awarded in the Champions Competition, and diplomas are awarded in the Open Competition. The choir that attains the highest point and a gold medal in a category during the Champions Competition is awarded the title of "Champion of the World Choir Games" for that category.

As part of the festival aspect of the Games choirs may also choose to participate in artistic workshops featuring renowned choral instructors, as well as friendship concerts and free public concerts where choirs share their music with choristers and audiences from different parts of the world.[10][11] Ceremonies that form part of the Games include opening and closing ceremonies where up to 20 000 choristers join in a single venue, as well as the award ceremonies where the outcomes of the Open Competition and Champions Competition are announced. During the proceedings of the Games, the host for the next edition of the Games is usually also announced."

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NFORMATION ABOUT HARMONIOUS CHOIR
From
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harmonious_Chorale
"Harmonious Chorale (HC) is an interdenominational choir based in Accra, Ghana. It is adjudged one of Ghana's best groups.[1] It was formerly formed as the Harmonious Quartet in 2005[2] and established as Harmonious Chorale in 2007.[3]

Dr. Joyce Rosalind Aryee, the founder and Executive Director of Salt and Light Ministries is the Chairman of the choir.[4] The choir is under the directorship of James Varrick Armaah (founder of Harmonious Chorale),[5] composer of popular choral song, 'Oye', and graduate from the school of performing arts Music Department of the University of Ghana, Legon.[6][7]

Harmonious Chorale released its debut album, Come Let Us Sing in 2009.[2]

Harmonious Chorale in 2016 instituted the Joyce Rosalind Aryee International Conference for Choirs,[8] an annual event in appreciation of Aryee's contribution to the promotion and sustenance of chorale music.[9]

Harmonious Chorale was the guest choir at the University of Ghana's maiden edition of the UG Choral Music festival.[10] Harmonious Chorale joined musicians such as Don Moen, Sinach, Angela Christie and Leonel Peterson at the Akwa Ibom Christmas Carols Festival, the largest gathering of carol singers in the world, under the auspices of the Governor of the Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.[11]

Harmonious Chorale is the first choir to represent Ghana at the 2018 World Choir Games held in South Africa .[12][13]

Awards
2015 Music of Ghanaian Origin (MOGO) Festival - Best Choral Group[14]
2015 [1] GHYouth Choir Choral Festival & Awards - Choir of the Year[15]
2016 [2] GHYouth Choir Choral Festival & Awards - Choir of the Year [16]
2018 [3] Shine Awards - Best Choral Group[17][18][19]
2018 World Choir Games - Golden Diploma (Level 1 Category 09 Mixed choirs)[20][21]
2018 World Choir Games - Golden Diploma (Level IV Category 016 Musica Sacra with Accompaniment)[20][21]
2018 World Choir Games- Winner (Scenic Folklore)[20][21]
2018 World Choir Games - Champions of the World Choir Games ( C28 Open Repertoire)[22][23]
2018 GHYouth Choir Choral Festival & Awards - Choir of the Year[24]
2018 GHYouth Choir Choral Festival & Awards - Oratorio of the Year (Joseph & His Brethren) [25]
2018 GHYouth Choir Choral Festival & Awards - Easter Concert of the Year (Festival of Praise and Worship) [25]
2018 GHYouth Choir Choral Festival & Awards - Instrumentalist of the year (Augustine Sobeng, Harmonious Chorale) [25]
2018 GHYouth Choir Choral Festival & Awards - Female Vocal of the Year (Lordina Eugenia Osei, Harmonious Chorale)[25]
2018 GHYouth Choir Choral Festival & Awards - Composer of the Year (James Varrick Armaah) [25]
2018 GHYouth Choir Choral Festival & Awards - Choral Song of the Year (Nea Wode Me Abeduru Nie, James Varrick Armaah, Harmonious Chorale) [25]"

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SELECTED COMMENTS FROM THIS EMBEDDED VIDEO'S DISCUSSION THREAD
Numbers are added for referencing purposes only.

1. Norbert Naanume, 2018
"Thank You Harmonious Chorale for making Ghana proud. World Champions!!!!

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2. Anita Adubofour, 2018
"Amen.Congratulations HC...Ghana on the map!"

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3. Ebo Bondzie, 2018
"And this radio presenters don't even talk about
And everyday talking about politics"

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4. raphael dotse, 2018
"I'm in love with this great group for a long time, can't even describe the joy they bring to my life any time I watch n listen to their marvelous renditions. Big ups Especially my mentor Varrick"
-snip-
Composer James Varrick Armaah is the Founder and Director of the Harmonious Chorale.

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5. Margaret Asamoah, 2018
"But next time be more diverse, Ghana has other languages ,dances, cultures. If you r representing Us, Thanks , CONGRATS !!🙏🙏🙏👍"

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REPLY
6. Tebis VanKelvin, 2019
"@Margaret Asamoah ... They couldn't represent the whole tribes equally that's why they tried representing on ethnic lines with their cultural dressings...

If you look well at the cultural part you will notice every tribe/ethnic group was fairly represented.."

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7. Wisdom Prince, 2019
"Arguably, HC is the best chorale group in Ghana over the past 50 years. Kudos guys for lifting high the flag of Ghana."

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8. Gwynne Cain, 2019
"Interesting to look at this, there is so much African American creativity here you may not think that there was a difference. During Black History Month we may have something that depicts life like it was during the 1600 and 1700's it would be something in this nature, different tribes at Congo Square entertaining themselves. I really like the percussion arangements, but I have a problem with the voicings that are very much European, I am missing a Bass in the voicing that I love to hear, but maybe it is in another country.The voicing arrangement is tooooo much European. They took away the original sound of the African Culture. They catered the music to the people who were doing the competition. Congratulations , next time put some African blackness back in it. We have some choirs in America that will really give you a show. But congratulations because you worked hard to get there and it paid off. But it would be even better if you would stay in the genre that is represented in your culture, undiluted. Just my Opinon."

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REPLY
9. HARMONIOUS CHORALE - GHANA, 2019
"Many thanks and Suggestion well taken. The harmony was done specifically for the Olympics. We promise to give the world more Africanness as we known for in our next production. Thank you."

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REPLY
10. Hannah Dorkenu, 2019
"Although I may agree with you from a certain perspective. I do not understand what you mean by African Culture. Africa itself consists of different cultural groups. Even in Ghana, we have almost over 30 cultural groups. I don't think there is anything like African culture from where I stand in Ghana. And know that this is my opinion. What African American think of Africa may not be as it is. The choir as they were presenting put in twists from different cultural groups in Ghana. I heard a Ga song, a twi song, even saw Borborbor from eweland, Kpalogo from Ga's and Adowa from the Akans. Correct me if I am wrong but I don't know how African you want us to go again, considering the term choir is European."

**
REPLY
11. Prince Jadon, 2019
"@Hannah Dorkenu even ewes didn't have one culture"

**
REPLY
12. Akosua Adjeiwaa, 2019
"Please i am from Ghana, there's nathing wrong with the show. What do you know about African or Ghana culture."

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REPLY
13. intuitive self-love, 2019
"@Hannah Dorkenu she just wants you to bark like a dog and run naked lol joke aside many people think Africa is a culture. Lol"

**
REPLY
14. Hannah Dorkenu, 2019
"@Prince Jadon Exactly"

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15. Asso asso eric, 2019
"Mes félicitations à ce magnifique groupe qui fait plaisir à ce bon continent d'Afrique"
-snip-
Google translation from French to English:
"Congratulations to this wonderful group that makes this continent of Africa happy"

**
16. GH aviator, 2019
"The cultural part was lit. I'm so happy I bumped into this video. Definitely subscribing. 😉😉😉😉"

**
17. Margaret Asamoah, 2019
"Work well done All I am saying is be Diverse, Agbadja, Astiagbeko, Gbolo, Borborbor, etc, then you r fully representing Gna , The Ashanti leadership !!!l please. J Nash !!!!"

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REPLY
18. Aso Bosiako, 2019
"Margaret Asamoah let's stop such talks...its Ghanaian and beautiful."

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19. Aseye Diaba, 2019
"Knowing how rich our culture and history is, I cannot rationalize why Ghanaians parents are paying $$$ to send their kids to school in Ghana that primarily teaches a British or American history and culture (curriculum) . Can someone tell me if they’ve seen any pupil in England or America learning about Ghanaian history. How many kids today know about the history of the black stool? Yet you will find Ghanaian kids in international schools in Ghana learning about the 1066 battle of Hastings. We are raising a generation of Ghanaian kids who know absolutely nothing about their culture and fail to see how this will impact us in the future .We are the same folks who will scream if a white man appropriates our culture and starts selling it to us because we do not know the value of what we have. Let us emancipate ourselves from mental slavery.

Well done harmonious chorale for representing our people and culture so well"

**
20. Nketiah Manu Joseph, 2019
"Awwww my God I feel like crying ooo😭😭😭😭😭😭😭Ghana ooooooo Ghana"

**
21. Linda Ofoli, 2019
"Watching from Italy..much love for Ghanaaaaaaaaaa my motherland❤❤❤❤"

**
22. Harriet Afia Mensah, 2019
"Why are we not hearing about this in the media??? They did a FANTASTIC JOB, I'm very proud"

****
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Visitor comments are welcome.

Sunday, February 17, 2019

Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity & Its Alpha Walk/Ape Walk (information, comments & videos);

Edited by Azizi Powell

This pancocojams post presents information and comments about and and videos of Alpha Phi Alpha, Fraternity, Inc's "Alpha Walk"("Ape Walk").

This group movement art is also known as "The Alpha Stroll" and possibly other names.

The content of this post is presented for folkloric, historical, and cultural purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

Thanks to all those who are quoted in this post and thanks to the publishers of these videos on YouTube.
-snip-
A portion of this post was published in this 2013 pancocojams post: http://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2013/05/deconstructing-stereotype-of-black.html Deconstructing The Stereotype Of Black People As Apes & Monkeys

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COMMENTS ABOUT ALPHA PHI ALPHA FRATERNITY, INC. AND ITS UNOFFICIAL APE WALK/APE DEPICTIONS (COSTUMES, MASKS, ETC)
Alpha Phi Alpha is a (historically Black) Greek letter fraternity.

It's clear from watching videos of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. (APhiA; Alphas) step shows & strolls that a number of Alphas consider apes as their unofficial mascot, symbol, or icon. That this symbolism is unofficial is underscored by the fact that there's no mention of apes being a symbol of A Phi A on that organization's website http://www.alpha-phi-alpha.com or on the Wikipedia page about that organization http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alpha_Phi_Alpha.

"Alpha Phi Alpha (ΑΦΑ) is the first Black, Inter-Collegiate Greek-Lettered fraternity. It was founded on December 4, 1906 at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. Its founders are known as the "Seven Jewels". Alpha Phi Alpha developed a model that was used by the many Black Greek Letter Organizations (BGLOs) that soon followed in its footsteps. It employs an icon from Ancient Egypt, the Great Sphinx of Giza as its symbol, and its aims are "manly deeds, scholarship, and love for all mankind," and its motto is First of All, Servants of All, We Shall Transcend All."...
-snip-
An excerpt from Alpha Protocol & Etiquette Manual by Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity reads "Brothers and chapters are prohibited from using the ape publicly to represent Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc." https://issuu.com/apa1906network/docs/protocol_etiquette_manual/18

Also, a note credited to Rashid Darden on a pinterest page for Alpha paraphernalia (shirts, jackets etc) reads "THIS IS A NO NO....The Ape is not in any way associated with Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, yet many brothers wear this type of clothing to official Alpha events and in photos representing Alpha. Not a good look" https://www.pinterest.com/pin/511158626426311047/?lp=true

Yet, the fact that a number of Alphas associate "apes" with their fraternity is evident in a number of the Alpha Phi Alpha step show/stroll YouTube videos as well as in a number of comments in those video's discussion threads. Examples are given below.

Online references to "apes" and Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. are mostly in videos of and comments about the strutting group movement art called a "walk" (also known as a "stroll"). Comments that I've found online (given below) strongly suggest that the "ape walk" is a newer term for what was once called (and may still be called) the "Alpha walk". Also, these online comments and an excerpt from Elizabeth C. Fine's book Steppin suggest that the "ape" and/or the name "Ape Walk" were unofficially adopted by members of Alpha Phi Alpha in the 1980s, although the "walk" itself is older than that.

In the context of historically Black fraternities/sororities, a "walk" (also known as a "stroll") is a movement performance art in which two or more people form a single file and do uncomplicated, repetitive, choreographed motions while moving at a slow pace in a circular manner, usually to recorded Hip Hop/R&B music. "Walks" ("strolls" can be competitive (i.e. performed during competitive step shows or stroll contests) or non-competitive (performed- sometimes extemporaneously- during social events such as parties (i.e. "party walks") or Greek (fraternity/sorority) picnics.

The "Ape Walk" ("Alpha Walk"/"Alpha Stroll") is traditionally performed by Alphas to the Hop Hop record "Mic Checka Remix" by Das EFX.

****
YOUTUBE COMMENTS ABOUT THE "APE WALK"/ THE "ALPHA WALK" ("ALPHA STROLL")
Several commenters in discussion threads for videos that show the Alphas' Ape Walk write or suggest that the Alpha's "Ape Walk" was originally called the "Alpha Walk". [Numbers added for referencing purposes only]

1. carolinaNatl, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fKMGpWnzm5kAlpha Phi Alpha Ape Walk
Drkch03, Published on Apr 21, 2008 [hereafter given as "Alpha Phi Alpha Ape Walk video discussion"]
carolinaNatl, 2009
"Yep it's called the "Alpha Walk" here in GA. The Delta Eta chapter at Savannah State University started it even before I came in (in spring 02). Mic Checka by Daz Efx is the official song thanks to our old heads - and thanks to our many roads trips and step shows, everyone knows it! AAAAAA PHHHII!!!!!

**
Reply
2. pettisk28, 2009; "Alpha Phi Alpha Ape Walk video discussion"
"Not sure who this is, but I read your post and wanted to correct you...The Alpha Walk was created by the Beta Nu Chapter of A Phi A at Florida A&M in the early 1990s when Mic Checka remix came out.

I pledged in Spr. 99 BN and trust me, there is no chapter who does it like we do...I am glad that other chapters (probably through regional/national conventions and visits to FAM) have tried to adopt it, but please give proper credit where it is due."
Pettis Kent
Taildog, Spr. 99 Beta Nu A Phi A

**
Reply
carolinaNatl, 2009; "Alpha Phi Alpha Ape Walk video discussion"
3. "Wow...uh ok. I heard of the florida walk that your band used to do (correct me if I'm wrong). I see this is pretty important to you. No one trying to take credit away. Thanks for your 2 cents...Great job...

We spread it through roads trips (always visiting another school - especially here in GA) and of course conventions. I think we deserve a little credit for it's popularity - and no one does it like us either (not that I care). Do you guys still do it?"

**
Reply
4. pettisk28, 2009, "Alpha Phi Alpha Ape Walk video discussion"
"My bad for coming on so strong, but the reason why I responded like that is because far too often, proper credit is not given for certain things especially within the frat.

Anyway, yes, we do the alpha walk at the end of each party we have, as well as other parties and we do it at steps shows, frat house BBQs, etc. I think if you search Beta Nu Alphas, you may be able to see same clips of the current guys doing it.

Take care of yourself bruh, and thanks for doing the Alpha walk.

PK"

**
Reply
5. Blockchaindoc06, 20109, "Alpha Phi Alpha Ape Walk video discussion"
"I'll have to agree with pettisk28 on his point. I remember going up to FAMU in like '94-96 and bruhs were definitely doing the A-Walk to Mic Checka. The BN bruhs definitely deserve props for that. Because the stroll is so cold it has been adopted many chapters. I'm just happy to see the bruhs from the Florida Fed. showing love and repping nationwide like they are currently. Much love to all the Florida bruhs especially my Tau Delta chapter bruhs!

Nutty Professor
#2TDSp99"

**
Reply
6. onwardlight6091, 2009; "Alpha Phi Alpha Ape Walk video discussion"
"interesting the "APE" walk done in texas is different..it actually looks like an APE walking in part of the strut which is weird because i always wondered who studied an ape and put it in a strut..lol"

**
7. LooseEnds06, 2009, "Alpha Phi Alpha Ape Walk video discussion"
"Let me put my 7 cents in - I pledged in the 80's before Mic Checka was ever a song and the Alphas were doing the Ape Walk back then even before I pledged!!! And yes, we called it the Ape Walk then! These brothers are doing the Ape Walk as we did then, but the Ape Walk was a smooth and cool party hop. We also placed our right hand on the right shoulder of the brother in front of us while doing the Ape Walk too! And just as these brothers are saying "my leg, my leg, my %#& leg," we did as well!"

**
8. LooseEnds06, 2009, "Alpha Phi Alpha Ape Walk video discussion"
"Another thing, although I don't know who started doing if first, but from my recollection, the Ape Walk was being done by brothers all over the country. I remember going to my first Nat'l Conv in the 80's and being in awe at 100's of brothers in line doing the Ape Walk around the ballroom after the stepshow. Although we called it the Ape Walk - that was pretty much the only thing that we glorified of the Ape image. Alpha men held up the true frat images of the SPHINX, PYRAMIDS and PHAROAHS!"

**
9. bulletsnr, 2010
"In the midwest, it's called the 'Old Man'. No matter what it's called, it's the ish and I miss that ish!

#2 Khafre, Fall '97, Bloody O!"

**
10. M Mcintyre, 2016; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bSPTNseaq4k "Infamous APhiA Stroll"*, BigMonayBlamz, Published on Apr 17, 2012, [Hereafter given as "Infamous APhiA video discussion"]
"love this one,,,,mixing a little old school 1980's step with a little of the new.........and still under control enough so that a 60 year brother in Alpha can still jump out and step. My first Alpha Walk,,,,had a frat on my line that had crossed in 1947 when I crossed in 1981.
-snip-
*Another commenter clarified that "Infamous" in this title was the nickname of the Alpha chapter at that university.

**
11. The MOTIV8 Xperience TV, 2017, "Infamous APhiA video discussion"
"Man I peeped a few different versions of the Alpha Walk bruhs!lbs-- Ya'll did ya thang! '06"

**
12. Miss Volpexpress08, 2017, "Infamous APhiA video discussion"
".....AIN'T NOTHING LIKE THAT ALPHA STROLL!!...08!

**
13. M Mcintyre, 2017, "Infamous APhiA video discussion"
"OLd school Alpha Walkin'"

****
"STEPPIN" BOOK EXCERPT ABOUT ALPHAS AND THE APE WALK
A passage from Elizabeth C. Fine's 2003 book Soulstepping: African American Step Shows quotes a passage in Howard University's 1988 Bison yearbook mentions apes in reference to Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc.
P.40
..."One of the few descriptions of a different type of step show-the probate show-appears in the 1988 Bison. In “Probation prior to Vacation: Karen Samuels provides colorful details about the performances of five pledge clubs, demonstrating the importance of movement, song, and symbolic costumes....

There are also photographs of the AKA pledge club, the Delta pledges performing their ritual duck walk; and the “Nubian Apes of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity. Inc.” who “let out whoops and snatched members of the audience into their arms as they prepare to cross the burning sands into Alpha land.” [Samuel, Bison, “Probation Prior to Vacation” 14-15

****
WHAT DOES "APES" MEAN TO MEMBERS OF ALPHA PHI ALPHA FRATERNITY?
Several commenters in discussion threads of videos of the Alpha's Ape Walk wrote that unless you are a member of this organization, you wouldn't understand what "ape" means to them. Here are three examples of those comments
1. Capricorn GoddessNika, 2015; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bSPTNseaq4k Infamous APhiA Stroll*[ hereafter given as Infamous APhiA video discussion], BigMonayBlamz, Published on Apr 17, 2012
"And the ape has significance. It's neither random nor a gimmick. Trust me on this (I can't say more - I took an oath)."

**
[comment written in response to a comment that an Alpha being part of a stroll wearing an ape costume being "just "an idiot in an ape costume"
2, B The Motivator Inspires, 2015; Infamous APhiA video discussion
"If your not an Alpha then you don't know anything about the ape so it would look like that to you."

**
3. J Hughes, 2017; Infamous APhiA video discussion
"Dan Shields if you're not a bruh, you won't undertand"
-snip-
[This was written in response to this comment]
Dan Shields, 2012, Infamous APhiA video discussion
"is it just me or did it look like blacks took a step back when the dude in the monkey suit went through? u already know white folks are prolly laughing at this sayin, "i told u they are animals" "
-snip-
I've read in a 2009 Geocities anti-greek forum that in Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity pledge process, "a.p.e" means "almost pledged* entirely". http://www.oocities.org/glos_havebeenexposed/sin_and_shame.html don’tgogreek.com
-end of quote-
That may or may not be true.

Also, this comment was sent to the discussion thread for the above mentioned 2013 pancocojams post whose link is given above on -snip-
Because I'm not a member of that fraternity, and for other reasons, I chose to delete my guesses about the significance of apes to Alphas that I had included in the 2013 pancocojams post entitled "Deconstructing The Stereotype Of Black People As Apes & Monkeys "whose link is given above.
Anonymous, April 1, 2015 at 1:14 PM
"I AM AN ALPHA APE FROM CENTRAL STATE U.
SPR 03
ACE K1UB
OUR ADOPTION OF THE APE, COMES FROM THE PRIMATE (APE) BEING THE SAMRTEST OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM. HENCE THE FACT THAT WE ARE PARTY ANIMALS, THE APE WAS ADOPTED."
-snip-
If this is true, it may not be everything that "apes" means to members of this fraternity.

Even though the reason/s for this choice are secret, what is done in secret can impact people outside an organization. Because historically and in this present time apes, gorillas, and monkeys have very negative connotations for Black people, I continue to look side eye at Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity's choice of an ape for their icon, even though that icon is unofficial. ]
-snip-
A passage from Elizabeth C. Fine's book Soulstepping: African American Step Shows quotes a passage in Howard University's 1988 Bison yearbook mentions apes in reference to Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc.; P.40
..."One of the few descriptions of a different type of step show-the probate show-appears in the 1988 Bison. In “Probation prior to Vacation: Karen Samuels provides colorful details about the performances of five pledge clubs, demonstrating the importance of movement, song, and symbolic costumes....

There are also photographs of the AKA pledge club, the Delta pledges performing their ritual duck walk; and the “Nubian Apes of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity. Inc.” who “let out whoops and snatched members of the audience into their arms as they prepare to cross the burning sands into Alpha land.” [Samuel, Bison, “Probation Prior to Vacation” 14-15]

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SHOWCASE VIDEOS
Video #1: Alpha Phi Alpha Ape Walk



Drkch03, Published on Apr 21, 2008

A Phi A Ape Walking at FISS 2008 Greek Fest

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Video #2: Alphas @ Strolling on the Moon



BakerClassics, Published on May 11, 2010
-snip-
Alphas do the Ape Walk in the beginning of the video
-snip-
The Ape Walk is done to Mic Checka Remix - Das EFX. This appears to be the record that is always used for this Alpha walk/stroll,

****
Video #3: Infamous APhiA Stroll



BigMonayBlamz, Published on Apr 17, 2012

Had to do an english project on something relating to FSU so I decided to do it on the NPHC and the MGC. This is just a part of my project, I recorded the Infamous Iota Delta Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity Inc strolling at FSU's marekt Wednesday during Alpha weeek.

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Video #4: Alpha Phi Alpha WIN 2012 Atlanta Greek Picnic step show



Atlanta Greek Picnic, Published on Jun 17, 2012

Alpha Phi Alpha WIN 2012 Atlanta Greek Picnic $10,000 step show
-snip-
In a portion of that video (around 1:42 to around 2:10) & in some other A Phi A step routines, Alphas mimic apes. They crouch down and jump up & down like apes. They hold their arms to the side like apes, hit their chest & hit the ground in front of where they are standing. And they make ape sounds while looking menacing. In some videos of Alpha strolls [party walks] one or more members of Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity wear a gorilla mask.
-snip-
In a portion of that video (around 1:42 to around 2:10) & in some other A Phi A step routines, Alphas mimic apes. They crouch down and jump up & down like apes. They hold their arms to the side like apes, hit their chest & hit the ground in front of where they are standing. And they make ape sounds while looking menacing. In some videos of Alpha strolls [party walks] one or more members of Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity wear a gorilla mask.

Here are two comments from viewers of the step show video that is featured above:
1. "MY BLACK MY BLACK MY BBBBBBBBBLACK!
A Phi to the Apes! Congrats bruhs!"
-Santwon Hines, 2012

**
2. "thats how APES do it . great performance PHRAT . you APES did your thing ."
PHROZEN spr' 12
Gamma Kappa
Miles College
-tri66z, 2012
that organization prides itself on its connection to Egypt and Ethiopia. [This comment includes links to the Alphas' Wikipedia pages, and its official website]

****
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Visitor comments are welcome.

Saturday, February 16, 2019

The Blackface Tradition Of The Mardi Gras Zulu Social Aid & Pleasure Club (with Feb. 2019 update)

Edited by Azizi Powell

This pancocojams post provides information about and critique of the Zulu Social Aid & Pleasure Club (Mardi Gras krewe).

The content of this post is presented for socio-cultural and historical purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

Thanks to all those who are quoted in this post and thanks to the publishers of the videos that are embedded in this post.
-snip-
Most of the content of this post was originally published on pancocojams in 2012.

****
Zulu Parade: Mardi Gras 2011 in New Orleans



Uploaded by vparlant on Mar 8, 2011

Scenes from the 2011 Zulu Parade on Mardi Gras Day in New Orleans, La. Includes clip of St. Augustine's Marching 100, McDonogh 35 marching band,dance troupes and Zulus in black face. Video by Nordette Adams

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OVERVIEW OF THE BLACKFACE TRADITION OF THE MADRI GRAS ZULU SOCIAL AID & PLEASURE CLUB
Since 1909 - with the exception of the years 1965 and 1966 - most of the members of the Mardi Gras krewe* Zulus Social Aid & Pleasure Club (Zulus SA&PC) have worn black face paint and grass skirts during their annual Mardi Gras parade. Members of that predominately Black Mardi Gras krewe usually also wear large black afro wigs as part of their Mardi Gras costumes. These portrayals are stereotypical parodies of real South African Zulus and other dark skinned native people throughout the world that are based on black faced minstrelsy.

*"krewe" = an organization; a membership group that parades during New Orleans Mardi Gras and engages in other social functions.

The Zulu Social Aid & Pleasure Club krewe was formed in 1909 after members of the African American social group Tramps witnessed a theatric skit about the Zulus South African ethnic group.

Here's information about the origin of that Mardi Gras krewe:
From http://www.kreweofzulu.com/history/
"Early in 1909, a group of laborers who had organized a club named “The Tramps,” went to the Pythian Theater to see a musical comedy performed by the Smart Set. The comedy included a skit entitled, “There Never Was and Never Will Be a King Like Me,” about the Zulu Tribe...

After seeing the skit, they retired to their meeting place (a room in the rear of a restaurant/bar in the 1100 block of Perdido Street), and emerged as Zulus. This group was probably made up of members from the Tramps, the Benevolent Aid Society [of that ward] and other ward-based groups.

While the “Group” marched in Mardi Gras as early as 1901, their first appearance as Zulus came in 1909, with William Story as King.

The group wore raggedy pants, and had a Jubilee-singing quartet in front of and behind King Story. His costume of “lard can” crown and “banana stalk” scepter has been well documented. The Kings following William Story, (William Crawford – 1910, Peter Williams – 1912, and Henry Harris – 1914), were similarly attired.

1915 heralded the first use of floats, constructed on a spring wagon, using dry good boxes. The float was decorated with palmetto leaves and moss and carried four Dukes along with the King. That humble beginning gave rise to the lavish floats we see in the Zulu parade today."
Editor: "Ward" here means "city neighborhood". To quote that article "Benevolent Societies were the first forms of insurance in the Black community where, for a small amount of dues, members received financial help when sick or financial aid when burying deceased members."

**
From http://www.facebook.com/pages/Zulu-Social-Aid-Pleasure-Club/111689455522994
"In 1908, John L. Metoyer and members of a New Orleans Mutual aid society called “The Tramps”, attended a vaudevillian comedy show called, “There Never Was and Never Will Be a King Like Me”. The musical comedy performed by the “Smart Set” at the Pythian Temple Theater on the corner of Gravier and Saratoga in New Orleans, included a skit where the characters wore grass skirts and dressed in blackface. Metoyer became inspired by the skit and reorganized his marching troupe from baggy-pant-wearing tramps to a new group called the “Zulus”. In 1909, Metoyer and the first Zulu king, William Story, wore a lard-can crown and carried a banana stalk as a scepter. Six years later in 1915, the first decorated platform was constructed with dry goods boxes on a spring wagon. The King’s float was decorated with tree moss and palmetto leaves.

In 1916, Zulu Social Aid and Pleasure Club became incorporated where the organization’s bylaws were established as well as its social mission and dedication to benevolence and goodwill.

In 1933, the Lady Zulu Auxiliary was formed by the wives of Zulu members, and in 1948, Edwina Robertson became the first Queen of Zulu making the club the first to feature a queen in a parade."

**
From http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/neworleans/sfeature/zulu.html provides additional information about the origins of the Zulu S&PC is found in this article:
"King Zulu has reigned in the streets of New Orleans nearly every Fat Tuesday since 1909. The first kings of Zulu wore lard cans for crowns and carried banana stalks as scepters. Jubilee-singers flanked the king, with Mr. Big Stuff and the Witch Doctor in grass-skirts and black face in attendance. By 2005 the Zulu parades were premiere Mardi Gras events with lavish floats. Gone was the raggedy pants parody of the original parade; the king and queen of Zulu reigned in elegant tuxedo and gown."

Another quote from that same article indicates that at least for a small period of time there was public pressure on the members of that Mardi Gras Krewe to cease wearing blackface:
“Zulus were not without their controversies, either. In the 1960’s during the height of Black awareness, it was unpopular to be a Zulu. Dressing in a grass skirt and donning a black face were seen as being demeaning. Large numbers of black organizations protested against the Zulu organization, and its membership dwindled to approximately 16 men. James Russell, a long-time member, served as president in this period, and is credited with holding the organization together and slowly bringing Zulu back to the forefront."

From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zulu_Social_Aid_%26_Pleasure_Club:
"In the 1960s, [Zulu SA&PC] membership dwindled as a result of social pressures from civil rights activists. The protesters advertised in the local black community's newspaper The Louisiana Weekly stating:

"We, the Negroes of New Orleans, are in the midst of a fight for our rights and for a recognition of our human dignity which underlies those rights. Therefore, we resent and repudiate the Zulu Parade, in which Negroes are paid by white merchants to wander through the city drinking to excess, dressed as uncivilized savages and throwing cocoanuts like monkeys. This caricature does not represent Us. Rather, it represents a warped picture against us. Therefore, we petition all citizens of New Orleans to boycott the Zulu Parade. If we want respect from others, we must first demand it from ourselves"."

According to that Wikipedia article, in response to those pressures, from 1965 to 1966 the Zulu SA&PC continued to parade wearing grass skirts but during those years stopped wearing blackface. However, from 1967 on that krewe returned to the custom of blackening their skin.

From http://www.eastjeffersonparish.com/culture/MARDIGRA/HISTORY/history.htm:
"Zulu came under pressure from portions of the black community who thought the krewe presented an undignified image. The king resigned and the parade was almost cancelled, but Zulu survived and was a main attraction by 1969".
-snip-
Furthermore, in 1973 the Zulu SA&PC began recruiting members regardless of race. And regardless of race, members of the Zulu S&PC wear black facial paint during their annual Mardi Gras Parade.

****
Why do members of the Zulu Social Aid & Pleasure Club wear blackface?
From my online research, the reasons most often given (together or separately) are that the Zulus SA&PC and their costuming is -or at least started out as - a parody of White Mardi Gras krewes, it is tradition, and the parade (and therefore the method of parading) is done just for fun (and therefore shouldn’t be judged).

The "Zulu Mardi Gras parade" as fun is part of the overacrching contemporary (if not traditional) approach to Mardi Gras parades. Although I've never attended any Mardi Gras parade, I don't discount that they are fun. However, just because something is fun, doesn't mean it can't be critiqued. That said, I prefer to focus on the two other reasons that I found mentioned in online articles for the Zulu S&PC's blackening up custom:

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Blackface as Parody Of White Mardi Gras Krewes
From http://www.nola.com/mardigras/index.ssf/2011/02/zulu_mardi_gras_krewe_files_su.html
"Zulu is a predominantly black group that, during the Carnival season, wears grass skirts and blackface makeup in parody of stereotypes from the early 1900s."

**
From http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/neworleans/sfeature/zulu.html "The Zulu Parade of Mardi Gras" [two comments by Ari Kelman]
"The Zulu parade emerged around the turn of the twentieth century and grew out of New Orleans's powerful African American community. Members of benevolent organizations, groups that engaged in community organizing, decided that if Mardi Gras was going to be segregated, they would begin a Krewe (a Mardi Gras club) of their own. They crowned a king, who wore a lard can atop his head and held a banana stalk as a scepter, mocking the class privilege of most white Carnival Krewes...

I don't think Zulu is just about fun, just as all of the Mardi Gras parades have multiple meanings. In this case, Zulu is about the city's African-American community asserting its right to parade in public spaces, to subvert racist images, and to participate in civic culture. Given New Orleans's extraordinarily complicated racial dynamics, these are important and powerful impulses. And so Zulu isn't just about fun; it's also about people asserting their citizenship."

**
From http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/neworleans/sfeature/zulu.html "The Zulu Parade of Mardi Gras" [comment by Lawrence Powell]
"That Zulu was founded just as segregation was hardening and racial violence was on the upswing helps answer the question. New Orleans's bloodiest race riot -- the Robert Charles riot -- had occurred nine years earlier. Dissent from racial orthodoxy had become dangerous. By embracing and amplifying white stereotypes of black character, Zulu was a safe way to mock the mockers. Its clownish royalty punctured the pretensions of the ermine-bedecked white elite. As Thomas Brothers explains in Louis Armstrong's New Orleans, Zulu's deployment of double-edged racial symbolism was "a classic example of carnivalesque release of class tensions with the special twist of African American signifying." The strategy made the black bourgeoise uncomfortable, however."

****
Blackening Up As Tradition
From http://discoverblackheritage.com/zulu-social-aid-pleasure-club
"Established in the early 1900′s, the Zulu Krewe, initially known as the “Tramps,” developed first as a marching group. According to legend, its members adopted the idea for the group from a popular vaudeville skit from the period, “There Never Was and Will Never Be a King Like Me,” dressing up in grass skirts and wearing blackface, traditions that continue today. Zulu royalty has counted among its kings, Louis Armstrong , who served in 1949 and sport special “float characters of Zululand,” including the Big Shot, the Witch Doctor and the Soulful Warriors…

The organization was designed to provide blacks with a way to socialize during Jim Crow era and segregation, and later, as a verhicle to provide its members with much needed burial insurance in a time when African Americans were unable to buy such policies. As a side benefit, it was also a way for New Orleans’s black residents to participate in the city’s official Mardi Gras celebrations—which until the 1960′s was mostly a “whites only” affair—by holding their own parades and balls and crowning faux royalty. Of all the throws to rain down from the many floats in the parades during carnival, the Zulu coconut or “Golden Nugget” is the most sought after."

**
From http://heatherleila3.blogspot.com/2010/02/mardi-gras-gender-and-race-and-everyone.html
“Everyone who rides in Zulu wears blackface. Everyone. (Or maybe just the men.) That means when white people ride in Zulu, they wear blackface too. It's tradition. You don't question tradition. Or do you?"

**
With regard to blackface being a tradition, it should also be noted that from the late 19th century until the mid 20th century, it was traditional for Black actors as well as White actors to wear blackface.
From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blackface#20th_century_examples
"In both the United States and Britain, blackface was most commonly used in the minstrel performance tradition, but it predates that tradition, and it survived long past the heyday of the minstrel show. White blackface performers in the past used burnt cork and later greasepaint or shoe polish to blacken their skin and exaggerate their lips, often wearing woolly wigs, gloves, tailcoats, or ragged clothes to complete the transformation. Later, black artists also performed in blackface...

In the Theater Owners Booking Association (TOBA), an all-black vaudeville circuit organized in 1909, blackface acts were a popular staple....For example, one of the most famous stars of Haverly's European Minstrels was Sam Lucas, who became known as the "Grand Old Man of the Negro Stage". Lucas later played the title role in the 1914 cinematic production of Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin. From the early 1930s to the late 1940s, New York City's famous Apollo Theater in Harlem featured skits in which almost all black male performers wore the blackface makeup and huge white painted lips, despite protests that it was degrading from the NAACP. The comics said they felt "naked" without it."

****
PANCOCOJAMS EDITOR'S COMMENT
Customs that occur over time become tradition. Since the Zulu Social Aid & Pleasure Club celebrated their one hundred anniversary of marching in Mardi Gras parades in 2009, there's no doubt that that organization's distinctive costuming is tradition.

With regard to "parody", it seems to me that the population being parodied by the blackface traditions of the Mardi Gras Zulus are Black people and Black African people in general, and KwaZulu people in particular. And it also seems to me that the Zulu S&PC's much sought after coconut “throw” is too close to the “black people as monkey” meme. I’m not one of those folk who think that negative stereotypes and pejorative words - For example, I don't believe that the “n word” should or can be reclaimed.

I believe that it’s important for people to be aware that the depictions of the Zulus by the Zulu SA&PC have nothing whatsoever to do with the KwaZulu people. In my opinion, no matter how much fun this parade is, and regardless of the fact that its members' costumes started as a way to safely mock White Mardi Gras customs, I believe that those costumes and that organization's name disrespect the South African KwaZulu's rich traditions, though no disrespect was intended. Although I have no association with the Zulu Social Aid & Pleasure Club, I am taking the liberty of apologizing to the KwaZulu people for this unintended disrespect.

****
2019 UPDATE

Edited by Azizi Powell

Zulu Parade: Mardi Gras 2011 in New Orleans



Uploaded by vparlant on Mar 8, 2011

Scenes from the 2011 Zulu Parade on Mardi Gras Day in New Orleans, La. Includes clip of St. Augustine's Marching 100, McDonogh 35 marching band,dance troupes and Zulus in black face. Video by Nordette Adams

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OVERVIEW OF THE BLACKFACE TRADITION OF THE MADRI GRAS ZULU SOCIAL AID & PLEASURE CLUB
Since 1909 - with the exception of the years 1965 and 1966 - most of the members of the Mardi Gras krewe* Zulus Social Aid & Pleasure Club (Zulus SA&PC) have worn black face paint and grass skirts during their annual Mardi Gras parade. Members of that predominately Black Mardi Gras krewe usually also wear large black afro wigs as part of their Mardi Gras costumes.

*"krewe" = an organization; a membership group that parades during New Orleans Mardi Gras and engages in other social functions.

The Zulu Social Aid & Pleasure Club krewe was formed in 1909 after members of the African American social group Tramps witnessed a theatric skit about the Zulus South African ethnic group.

From http://www.kreweofzulu.com/history/
"Early in 1909, a group of laborers who had organized a club named “The Tramps,” went to the Pythian Theater to see a musical comedy performed by the Smart Set. The comedy included a skit entitled, “There Never Was and Never Will Be a King Like Me,” about the Zulu Tribe...

After seeing the skit, they retired to their meeting place (a room in the rear of a restaurant/bar in the 1100 block of Perdido Street), and emerged as Zulus. This group was probably made up of members from the Tramps, the Benevolent Aid Society [of that ward] and other ward-based groups.

While the “Group” marched in Mardi Gras as early as 1901, their first appearance as Zulus came in 1909, with William Story as King.

The group wore raggedy pants, and had a Jubilee-singing quartet in front of and behind King Story. His costume of “lard can” crown and “banana stalk” scepter has been well documented. The Kings following William Story, (William Crawford – 1910, Peter Williams – 1912, and Henry Harris – 1914), were similarly attired.

1915 heralded the first use of floats, constructed on a spring wagon, using dry good boxes. The float was decorated with palmetto leaves and moss and carried four Dukes along with the King. That humble beginning gave rise to the lavish floats we see in the Zulu parade today."
Editor: "Ward" here means "city neighborhood". To quote that article "Benevolent Societies were the first forms of insurance in the Black community where, for a small amount of dues, members received financial help when sick or financial aid when burying deceased members."

**
From http://www.facebook.com/pages/Zulu-Social-Aid-Pleasure-Club/111689455522994
"In 1908, John L. Metoyer and members of a New Orleans Mutual aid society called “The Tramps”, attended a vaudevillian comedy show called, “There Never Was and Never Will Be a King Like Me”. The musical comedy performed by the “Smart Set” at the Pythian Temple Theater on the corner of Gravier and Saratoga in New Orleans, included a skit where the characters wore grass skirts and dressed in blackface. Metoyer became inspired by the skit and reorganized his marching troupe from baggy-pant-wearing tramps to a new group called the “Zulus”. In 1909, Metoyer and the first Zulu king, William Story, wore a lard-can crown and carried a banana stalk as a scepter. Six years later in 1915, the first decorated platform was constructed with dry goods boxes on a spring wagon. The King’s float was decorated with tree moss and palmetto leaves.

In 1916, Zulu Social Aid and Pleasure Club became incorporated where the organization’s bylaws were established as well as its social mission and dedication to benevolence and goodwill.

In 1933, the Lady Zulu Auxiliary was formed by the wives of Zulu members, and in 1948, Edwina Robertson became the first Queen of Zulu making the club the first to feature a queen in a parade."

**
From http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/neworleans/sfeature/zulu.html provides additional information about the origins of the Zulu S&PC is found in this article:
"King Zulu has reigned in the streets of New Orleans nearly every Fat Tuesday since 1909. The first kings of Zulu wore lard cans for crowns and carried banana stalks as scepters. Jubilee-singers flanked the king, with Mr. Big Stuff and the Witch Doctor in grass-skirts and black face in attendance. By 2005 the Zulu parades were premiere Mardi Gras events with lavish floats. Gone was the raggedy pants parody of the original parade; the king and queen of Zulu reigned in elegant tuxedo and gown."

Another quote from that same article indicates that at least for a small period of time there was public pressure on the members of that Mardi Gras Krewe to cease wearing blackface:
“Zulus were not without their controversies, either. In the 1960’s during the height of Black awareness, it was unpopular to be a Zulu. Dressing in a grass skirt and donning a black face were seen as being demeaning. Large numbers of black organizations protested against the Zulu organization, and its membership dwindled to approximately 16 men. James Russell, a long-time member, served as president in this period, and is credited with holding the organization together and slowly bringing Zulu back to the forefront."

From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zulu_Social_Aid_%26_Pleasure_Club:
"In the 1960s, [Zulu SA&PC] membership dwindled as a result of social pressures from civil rights activists. The protesters advertised in the local black community's newspaper The Louisiana Weekly stating:

"We, the Negroes of New Orleans, are in the midst of a fight for our rights and for a recognition of our human dignity which underlies those rights. Therefore, we resent and repudiate the Zulu Parade, in which Negroes are paid by white merchants to wander through the city drinking to excess, dressed as uncivilized savages and throwing cocoanuts like monkeys. This caricature does not represent Us. Rather, it represents a warped picture against us. Therefore, we petition all citizens of New Orleans to boycott the Zulu Parade. If we want respect from others, we must first demand it from ourselves"."

According to that Wikipedia article, in response to those pressures, from 1965 to 1966 the Zulu SA&PC continued to parade wearing grass skirts but during those years stopped wearing blackface. However, from 1967 on that krewe returned to the custom of blackening their skin.

From http://www.eastjeffersonparish.com/culture/MARDIGRA/HISTORY/history.htm:
"Zulu came under pressure from portions of the black community who thought the krewe presented an undignified image. The king resigned and the parade was almost cancelled, but Zulu survived and was a main attraction by 1969".
-snip-
Furthermore, in 1973 the Zulu SA&PC began recruiting members regardless of race. And regardless of race, members of the Zulu S&PC wear black facial paint during their annual Mardi Gras Parade.

****
Why do members of the Zulu Social Aid & Pleasure Club wear blackface?
From my online research, the reasons most often given (together or separately) are that the Zulus SA&PC and their costuming is -or at least started out as - a parody of White Mardi Gras krewes, it is tradition, and the parade (and therefore the method of parading) is done just for fun (and therefore shouldn’t be judged).

The "Zulu Mardi Gras parade" as fun is part of the overacrching contemporary (if not traditional) approach to Mardi Gras parades. Although I've never attended any Mardi Gras parade, I don't discount that they are fun. However, just because something is fun, doesn't mean it can't be critiqued. That said, I prefer to focus on the two other reasons that I found mentioned in online articles for the Zulu S&PC's blackening up custom:

****
Blackface as Parody Of White Mardi Gras Krewes
From http://www.nola.com/mardigras/index.ssf/2011/02/zulu_mardi_gras_krewe_files_su.html
"Zulu is a predominantly black group that, during the Carnival season, wears grass skirts and blackface makeup in parody of stereotypes from the early 1900s."

**
From http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/neworleans/sfeature/zulu.html "The Zulu Parade of Mardi Gras" [two comments by Ari Kelman]
"The Zulu parade emerged around the turn of the twentieth century and grew out of New Orleans's powerful African American community. Members of benevolent organizations, groups that engaged in community organizing, decided that if Mardi Gras was going to be segregated, they would begin a Krewe (a Mardi Gras club) of their own. They crowned a king, who wore a lard can atop his head and held a banana stalk as a scepter, mocking the class privilege of most white Carnival Krewes...

I don't think Zulu is just about fun, just as all of the Mardi Gras parades have multiple meanings. In this case, Zulu is about the city's African-American community asserting its right to parade in public spaces, to subvert racist images, and to participate in civic culture. Given New Orleans's extraordinarily complicated racial dynamics, these are important and powerful impulses. And so Zulu isn't just about fun; it's also about people asserting their citizenship."

**
From http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/neworleans/sfeature/zulu.html "The Zulu Parade of Mardi Gras" [comment by Lawrence Powell]
"That Zulu was founded just as segregation was hardening and racial violence was on the upswing helps answer the question. New Orleans's bloodiest race riot -- the Robert Charles riot -- had occurred nine years earlier. Dissent from racial orthodoxy had become dangerous. By embracing and amplifying white stereotypes of black character, Zulu was a safe way to mock the mockers. Its clownish royalty punctured the pretensions of the ermine-bedecked white elite. As Thomas Brothers explains in Louis Armstrong's New Orleans, Zulu's deployment of double-edged racial symbolism was "a classic example of carnivalesque release of class tensions with the special twist of African American signifying." The strategy made the black bourgeoise uncomfortable, however."

****
Blackening Up As Tradition
From http://discoverblackheritage.com/zulu-social-aid-pleasure-club
"Established in the early 1900′s, the Zulu Krewe, initially known as the “Tramps,” developed first as a marching group. According to legend, its members adopted the idea for the group from a popular vaudeville skit from the period, “There Never Was and Will Never Be a King Like Me,” dressing up in grass skirts and wearing blackface, traditions that continue today. Zulu royalty has counted among its kings, Louis Armstrong , who served in 1949 and sport special “float characters of Zululand,” including the Big Shot, the Witch Doctor and the Soulful Warriors…

The organization was designed to provide blacks with a way to socialize during Jim Crow era and segregation, and later, as a verhicle to provide its members with much needed burial insurance in a time when African Americans were unable to buy such policies. As a side benefit, it was also a way for New Orleans’s black residents to participate in the city’s official Mardi Gras celebrations—which until the 1960′s was mostly a “whites only” affair—by holding their own parades and balls and crowning faux royalty. Of all the throws to rain down from the many floats in the parades during carnival, the Zulu coconut or “Golden Nugget” is the most sought after."

**
From http://heatherleila3.blogspot.com/2010/02/mardi-gras-gender-and-race-and-everyone.html
“Everyone who rides in Zulu wears blackface. Everyone. (Or maybe just the men.) That means when white people ride in Zulu, they wear blackface too. It's tradition. You don't question tradition. Or do you?"

**
With regard to blackface being a tradition, it should also be noted that from the late 19th century until the mid 20th century, it was traditional for Black actors as well as White actors to wear blackface.
From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blackface#20th_century_examples
"In both the United States and Britain, blackface was most commonly used in the minstrel performance tradition, but it predates that tradition, and it survived long past the heyday of the minstrel show. White blackface performers in the past used burnt cork and later greasepaint or shoe polish to blacken their skin and exaggerate their lips, often wearing woolly wigs, gloves, tailcoats, or ragged clothes to complete the transformation. Later, black artists also performed in blackface...

In the Theater Owners Booking Association (TOBA), an all-black vaudeville circuit organized in 1909, blackface acts were a popular staple....For example, one of the most famous stars of Haverly's European Minstrels was Sam Lucas, who became known as the "Grand Old Man of the Negro Stage". Lucas later played the title role in the 1914 cinematic production of Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin. From the early 1930s to the late 1940s, New York City's famous Apollo Theater in Harlem featured skits in which almost all black male performers wore the blackface makeup and huge white painted lips, despite protests that it was degrading from the NAACP. The comics said they felt "naked" without it."

****
PANCOCOJAMS EDITOR'S COMMENT
Customs that occur over time become tradition. Since the Zulu Social Aid & Pleasure Club celebrated their one hundred anniversary of marching in Mardi Gras parades in 2009, there's no doubt that that organization's distinctive costuming is tradition.

With regard to "parody", it seems to me that the population being parodied by the blackface traditions of the Mardi Gras Zulus are Black people and Black African people in general, and KwaZulu people in particular. And it also seems to me that the Zulu S&PC's much sought after coconut “throw” is too close to the “black people as monkey” meme. I’m not one of those folk who think that negative stereotypes and pejorative words - For example, I don't believe that the “n word” should or can be reclaimed.

I believe that it’s important for people to be aware that the depictions of the Zulus by the Zulu SA&PC have nothing whatsoever to do with the KwaZulu people. In my opinion, no matter how much fun this parade is, and regardless of the fact that its members' costumes started as a way to safely mock White Mardi Gras customs, I believe that those costumes and that organization's name disrespect the South African KwaZulu's rich traditions, though no disrespect was intended. Although I have no association with the Zulu Social Aid & Pleasure Club, I am taking the liberty of apologizing to the KwaZulu people for this unintended disrespect.

****
UPDATE: FEBRUARY 2019
From https://www.yahoo.com/news/club-mardi-gras-tradition-not-same-blackface-015518893.html Club: Mardi Gras tradition is not the same as blackface
Associated Press•February 13, 2019
"FILE - In this March 4, 2014 file photo, members of the Krewe of Zulu hold painted coconuts to give to parade-goers, as they march during Mardi Gras in New Orleans. New Orleans' widely recognized Zulu Social Aid & Pleasure Club says its tradition of using black makeup for its Mardi Gras float riders is not the same as "blackface," a controversy that has embroiled officials nationwide. The club Wednesday, Feb. 13, 2019 distributed a statement in an effort to head off any criticism of its long-standing custom of parade riders blackening their faces. (AP Photo/Gerald Herbert, File)
"NEW ORLEANS (AP) — New Orleans' widely recognized Zulu Social Aid & Pleasure Club says its tradition of using black makeup for its Mardi Gras float riders is not the same as "blackface," a controversy that has embroiled officials nationwide.

The club Wednesday distributed a statement in an effort to head off any criticism of its long-standing custom of parade riders blackening their faces. The statement says Zulu parade costumes bear no resemblance to those worn by "blackface" minstrel performers at the turn of the century. It also says Zulu's costumes are designed to honor garments worn by South African Zulu warriors> and notes the tradition hails from poverty in the post-Reconstruction South, when makeup — not masks —was the only option available to them.

The New Orleans Advocate reports the club's statement comes just weeks before it prepares to roll on March 5, Fat Tuesday."
-snip-
*This sentence is given in italics to highlight it.

The statement quoted above doesn't note that the members of the Mardi Gras Zulu Social Aid & Pleasure club are Black Americans and therefore don't need to wear black makeup on their face to depict South African Zulus. While it may be true that in the early 20th century members of this krewe didn't know what the traditional attire of South African Zulu males were, given the age of the internet, that is no longer true. Furthermore, the way that Zulu Social Aid & Pleasure Club members continue to paint their faces and the costumes that they continue to wear conform with stereotypical minstrel tropes of wild dark skinned native men not just in Africa but in Melanesia and elsewhere in the world. One example of these stereotypical costumes is the South Sea Island "wild man" who is portrayed in the 1933 Little Rascal's clip known as "Yum Yum Eat'em Up". https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fnA8NQBjjso. One scene of this video that shows the "wild man" (who is scripted as coming from Borneo and not Africa) is at 4:53. Note that a 5:13/5:14 in this clip the Black boy (Stymie) says "Is that your uncle? He looks like a gorilla ape to me". Click https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Kid_from_Borneo for more information about this Little Rascals clip.
-snip-
In contrast to the statement from the Mardi Gras Zulu Social Aid & Pleasure Club that "Zulu's costumes are designed to honor garments worn by South African Zulu warriors", here's a video of Zulu Social Aid & Pleasure Club members parading in 2017

Zulu Parade - Mardi Gras 2017



Cosette Richard, Published on Mar 3, 2017

Zulu Social Aid & Pleasure Club
Mardi Gras Parade 2017
New Orleans, La.

-snip-
And here's a video of real Zulu males dressed in their traditional clothing:

INDLONDLO ZULU DANCERS



Indlondlo Zulu Dancers, Published on Sep 25, 2017

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