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Tuesday, February 18, 2020

African & Arabic Names & Other "Non-Standard American" Names In George Washington's 1799 Paper That Lists Names Of His Slaves

Edited by Azizi Powell

This is Part III of a three part pancocojams series that excerpts a 1799 paper that was written by George Washington, the first President of the United States. That paper lists enslaved Black people who were owned by or otherwise controlled by George Washington.

Part III of this series highlights the names or nicknames from George Washington's 1799 of slaves that I believe are from some traditional West African languages and from the Arabic language.

Part III of this series highlights other names (or nicknames) from that entire George Washington's 1799 paper of enslaved people that might have been considered unusual in 18th century United States.

Click https://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2020/02/names-of-enslaved-black-people-on.html for Part I of this pancocojams series. Part I of this series presents some of the names from a paper listing George Washington's slaves that he wrote in June 1799. [These lists are divided into Part I and Part II only because of blog space considerations.]

Click https://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2020/02/names-of-enslaved-black-people-on.html for Part I of this pancocojams series. Part I of this series presents some of the names from a paper listing George Washington's slaves that he wrote in June 1799. [These lists are divided into Part I and Part II only because of blog space considerations.]

****
The content of this post is presented for historical and onomastic purposes.

I'm most interested in documenting the types of names and nicknames that were used by these Black enslaved people, i.e. names that would be considered "standard" in the United States at that time, and names/nicknames that would be considered unusual during that time, including names that can be traced to West African languages or Arabic.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

Thanks to the government archives for sharing this information online.

RIP all those who are named in these lists.

****
[PART III OF THIS PANCOCOJAMS BLOG SERIES]
All of the names in this post are given in alphabetical order within their sub-section and are numbered consecutively within their sub-section.

A. NAMES FROM GEORGE WASHINGTON'S 1799 LIST THAT ARE FROM TRADITIONAL AFRICAN LANGUAGES OR FROM ARABIC
1. Abbay-[given as a female name in that 1799 paper]- perhaps a corrupted form of the Twi (Akan) female name "Yaaba, Yaa- female born on Thursday"

2. Juba [given as a male name]- found in a number of Wet African languages
From https://web.ccsu.edu/afstudy/upd4-3.html
Vol. IV, no. 3 (Summer 1997) Africa Update Archives: “African Languages and Ebonics" by Dr. Katherine Harris, Central Connecticut State University
...", Juba, one of the day names given to a male child along the Guinea coast, was also a nickname given to a girl born on Monday in slave communities to describe "tomboy" (1620s-1800). The name Juba, which was fairly common among African men in the l7th and l8th centuries, was also the name of a region in modern Kenya/Somalia and Sudan."

3. Mink [given as a male name in that paper "Will-Mink"]- "Mink" may be a form of "Mingo", which is derived from "Mandingo"
From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mandingo_people_of_Sierra_Leone
"Mandinka people of Sierra Leone (commonly referred to as the Mandingo, Mandinka or Malinke) is a major ethnic group in Sierra Leone and a branch of the Mandinka people of West Africa"...

4. "Nanny" - from Twi (Ghana/Ivory Coast) name/title "nana".
From http://www.odwirafo.com/nanasom.html
[in] "the Twi language of the Akan people of Ghana and Ivory Coast, Nana is a gender-neutral title representing the highest office in society. It is also a term used to denote Grandmother, Grandfather, Elderess, Elder, venerable Ancestress and venerable Ancestor."

Also, Click http://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2014/09/what-nana-means-in-akan-culture-its-use.html

5. Sambo [given as a male name]
From http://www.answers.com/topic/sambo-3 "Oxford Companion to African American Literature":
"Variants of the name Sambo can be found in several African cultures, including Samba in Bantu; Samb and Samba in Wolof; Sambu in Mandingo; and Sambo in Hausa, Mende, and Vai."

Click http://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2014/09/the-origin-meanings-of-word-sambo-means.

6. Senah and Sina [given as female names]
These names may have come from the Arabic female name "Sena" http://muslimbabynames.hawramani.com/sena/ meaning "glory", "honor", "greatness"

7. Teney [given as female names], probably a form of the female name "Tene": origin West African/meaning given as "Love" https://library.duke.edu/digitalcollections/snccdigitalgateway/DS_BookofAfricanNames.pdf

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B. NAMES FROM GEORGE WASHINGTON'S 1799 PAPER THAT ARE UNUSUAL IN THE 21st CENTURY (but may have been common in the 18th century for Black people in the United States and perhaps also for White people in the USA during that time)
1. Gunner [used as a male name in that 1799 paper

2. Hagar [used as a female name],https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hagar
"Hagar (Hebrew: הָגָר, Hāḡār, of uncertain origin;[1] Arabic: هَاجَر‎‎ Hājar; Greek: Ἁγάρ, Hagár; Latin: Agar) is a biblical person in the Book of Genesis. She was an Egyptian slave of Sarah,[2] who gave her to Abraham to bear a child. The product of the union was Abraham's firstborn, Ishmael, the progenitor of the Ishmaelites. Various commentators have connected her to the Hagrites, perhaps as their eponymous ancestor.[3][4][5][6]"...

**
3. Sukey [used as a female name], also spelled in that paper as "Sucky" and "Sakey"- nickname for the female name "Susan"

****
C. OTHER UNUSUAL NAMES/NICKNAMES ON THIS LIST (which may not have been common in the 18th century USA & aren't common in the 21st century USA)
1. Alla [used as a female name in that 1799 paper] - perhaps from "Allah"
2. Barbary [used as a female name in that 1799 paper] - perhaps a variant form of the female name "Barbara" with the popular "y" ending; I doubt that that name referred to the geographic location "The Barbary Coast" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbary_Coast
3. Beck [used as a female name] - a form of the nickname "Becky" [from the female name "Rebecca"]
4. Breechy [used as a male name] - origin?
5. Briney-[used as a female name] - origin?
6. Darcus - [used as a female name] - perhaps a variant form of the Greek name "Dorcus" https://www.sheknows.com/baby-names/name/dorcas/
7. Delphy [used as a female name] probably a nickname for the Latin female name "Delphinia" or the French female name "Delphine"
8. Dolshy [used as a female name] - perhaps a nickname for the Latin female name "Dulce" or "Dulcina" http://www.thinkbabynames.com/meaning/0/Dulcina
9. Elvey [used as a female name] - may be a shortened form of "Elvira"
10. Eneas [used as a male name] - origin?
11. Fendal [used as a male name] -origin?
12. Fomison [used as a female name] - origin?
13. Gunna [used as a male name] - origin?
14. Hellam [used as a male name] - origin?
15. Heuky - [used as a male name] -probably from a nickname for Hercules
16. Israel- [used as a male name]
17. Isrias- [used as a male name] - origin?
18. Leanthe [used as a female name] - perhaps a form of the female name "Leana" http://www.thinkbabynames.com/meaning/0/Leana
19. Letty [used as a female name], probably from the name "Leticia" [in the 21st century, a relatively common form of this name is "Latisha")
20. Levina [used as a female name], probably a variant form of the name "Lavinia"
21. Linney [used as a female name] - origin?
22. Mima [used as a female name] - perhaps a shortened form of the female name "Jemima" https://nameberry.com/babyname/Jemima
23. Myrtilla [used as female name], a variant form of the Greek name "Myrtle
24. Oney [used as a female name] - origin?
25. Paschall [used as a male name]- probably from the word "Paschal" https://www.thefreedictionary.com/paschal meaning "passover", Easter".
26. Phœnix [used as a male name]; refers to the phoenix bird
27. Raison [used as a female name] - origin?
28. Renney [used as a female name] - origin?
29. Sabine [used as a female name]- perhaps referring to "Sabine, Latin Sabinus, plural Sabini, member of an ancient Italic tribe located in the mountainous country east of the Tiber River. They were known for their religious practices and beliefs, and several Roman institutions were said to have derived from them. The story recounted by Plutarch that Romulus, the founder of Rome, invited the Sabines to a feast and then carried off (raped) their women, is legendary."... https://www.britannica.com/topic/Sabine
30. Savary [used as a female name] - origin?
31. Stately [used as a male name]- origin?
32. Urinah [used as a female name] - origin?
33. Viner [used as a female name] - origin?
34. Vinie - [used as a female name], perhaps a form of the female name and place name "Venecia", Click https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vinie_Burrows for information about the African American Broadway actress Vinie Burrows [Born Vinie Harrison November 15, 1924 (age 95)[1]"...
35. W. Muclus [used as a male name] - origin?

****
D. NAMES IN THAT 1799 PAPER THAT ARE USUALLY CONSIDERED SURNAMES IN THE 21st CENTURY (USA)
1. Anderson [used as a male name in that 1799 paper]
2. Bartley [used as a male name]
3. Burwell [used as a male name]
4. Caesar [used as a male name]
5. Forrester [used as a male name]
4. Gutridge -probably the name "Guthridge"that is now only used as a surname.
5. Hanson [used as a male name]
6. Siller [used as a female name]
7. Simms [used as a male name]
7. Townshend [used as a male name] ; probably aa variant form of the surname "Townsend"
8. Wilson [used as a male name]

****
E. COMMON NAMES IN THE 20th/21st CENTURY USA THAT ARE SPELLED DIFFERENTLY IN GEORGE WASHINGTON’S 1799 PAPER
1. Alce [used as a female name in that 1799 paper], This is probably the female name "Alice".
2. Aggy- [used as a female name], This is a nickname for the female name "Agatha"
3. Amie [used as a female name], This is probably the female name "Amy".
4. Chriss [used as male name]
5. Edy [used as a female name; nickname for Edith, spelled "Edie" now
6. Gabl [used as a male name[, probably the name "Gab", a nickname for "Gabriel"
7. Guss- [used as male name], spelled "Gus" now
8. Hanh [used as female name, probably the female name "Hannah".
9. Isbel [used as a female name], probably a form of the female name "Isabelle"/ “Isobel”
10. Johny [used as a male name], spelled "Johnny" now
11. Milley- [used as a female name], spelled “Millie” now (nickname for the female name “Mildred”)
12. Natt [used as a male name], spelled "Nat" now, (nickname for the names "Nathaniel" or "Nathan")
13. Rachell- [used as a female name], spelled "Rachel" now
14. Sall [used as a female name], spelled "Sal" now, a form of the nickname "Sally" for the name "Sarah"
15. Siss [used as a female name], may be a nickname for the female name "Cecilia"; also given as the nickname "Sissy" in the 20th century

****
OTHER UNUSUAL NAMES FROM THAT 1799 PAPER
Place names:
1. Dundee-[used as a male name]
2. Richmond-[used as a male name]
3. London [used as a male name]

Other Nouns:
1. Boatswain [used as a male name]
2. Doll [used as a female name], usually given as "Dolly in 20th and in 21st century
3. Emery [given as a male name],
4. Virgin [used as a female name] , probably a variant form of the name "Virginia"

****
EXAMPLES OF TWO NAMES GIVEN IN THAT 1799 PAPER
Occupation + Name:
1. Carter Jack
2. Gardr George
3. Smith Natt [blacksmith]?

Name + Physical Description:
1. Kate long -18- daughr of Kate
2. Kate sht-[probably the word "short"]

Physical Description + Name:
1. Long Jack - meaning a tall man ?

Other Description:
1. Slamin Joe - meaning ?

First & Last Name:
1. Tom Davis
2. Betty Davis
3. Sam Kitt

Last Name + First Name:
1. Lears John [also given as Lears' John- That paper mentions a Mr. Lear]
2. Lears Reuben [also given as Lears' Reuben]

Name + Ethnic Group:
1. Will—Mink ]Mink= "Mingo" from "Mandingo"

Location + Name:
1. Bay Suke [Bay Sukey]

Name + Twin [birth] :
1. Sall Twine

****
This concludes Part III of this three part pancocojams series.

Thanks for visiting pancocojams.
Visitor comments are welcome.

Names Of Enslaved Black People On George Washington's 1799 Lists (Part II)

Edited by Azizi Powell

This is Part II of a three part pancocojams series that excerpts a 1799 paper that was written by George Washington, the first President of the United States. That paper lists enslaved Black people who were owned by or otherwise controlled by George Washington.

Part II of this series presents additional names from a paper listing George Washington's slaves that he wrote in June 1799. which is said to have been written by George Washington around 1799. [These lists are divided into Part I and Part II only because of blog space considerations.]

Click https://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2020/02/names-of-enslaved-black-people-on.html for Part I of this pancocojams series. Part I of this series presents some of the names from a paper listing George Washington's slaves that he wrote in June 1799. [These lists are divided into Part I and Part II only because of blog space considerations.]

Click https://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2020/02/africanarabic-names-other-non-standard.html for Part III of this series. Part III of this series highlights the names or nicknames from George Washington's 1799 of slaves that I believe are of African or Arabic origin.

Click https://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2020/02/africanarabic-names-other-non-standard.html for Part III of this series. Part III of this series highlights the names or nicknames from George Washington's 1799 of slaves that I believe are from some traditional West African languages and from the Arabic language.

Part III of this series highlights other names (or nicknames) from that entire George Washington's 1799 paper of enslaved people that might have been considered unusual in 18th century United States.

****
The content of this post is presented for historical and onomastic purposes.

I'm most interested in documenting the types of names and nicknames that were used by these Black enslaved people, i.e. names that would be considered "standard" in the United States at that time, and names/nicknames that would be considered unusual during that time, including names that can be traced to West African languages or Arabic.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

Thanks to the government archives for sharing this information online.

RIP all those who are named in these lists.

****
PANCOCOJAMS EDITOR’S NOTES:
The information from this paper is reformatted to only include the people’s name, age [when given], marital status (when given for adults), and gender/mother’s name [when given].

In addition to that information, these paper includes notation about the people’s occupation [given as “Labour”], their disabilities, whether people [such as older people] were able to work, and where their spouse lived if they weren’t on the same farm/had the same owner. Some of that information is given under the heading of “Remarks” which I’ve left out of this reformatted list. This excerpt also doesn't include the notes at the end of this government archived paper.

George Washington used the word “Ditto” instead of written the same words that were used in that list before that name. For instance, “His wife” is given as “Ditto” if the words “His wife” were given before that name. Sometimes GW didn’t write either “His wife” or Ditto, but merely wrote the name of the wife.] For both of these entries, I’m writing “His wife” in brackets [Example: “George [His wife] Lydia”].

George Washington included the notation ""passed labr" which probably means "no longer able to work"

This pancocojams excerpt also doesn't include the information that was given about where the marital partners lived (when they lived away from the particular farm that is being enumerated on that list).

I added a hyphen to separate the name from the marital information/name or the mother's name.

When there wasn’t a space, I also added a space between the words “His wife” and the wife’s name.

**
Note that the name "Betty D[avis] (listed in Part I of this series) is written this way in that list. It's a coincidence that a White woman who is known as "Bette Davis" became a famous actress in the United States and that same White woman is also known because of the Kim Carnes song "Betty Davis Eyes". Click https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bette_Davis for information about the actress "Bette Davis".

**
It’s interesting to note how many of George Washington’s enslaved people were married (since the USA history that I remembering learning in school/college indicated that enslaved Black people in the USA couldn’t be married). It’s also interesting to read how many of the married couples that are listed in this paper had to live apart from each other on another farm and/or with another owner.

It's also interesting to note that most of the names of enslaved Black people in this 1799 paper were considered to be "standard" American names in the late 18th century, and most of those names are still standard American names now (in 2020).

These personal names could have been given to these enslaved people by their mothers or by other Black people, or by White people. These names could also have been self-selected by the people themselves.
I was interested to note that a few of these enslaved Black people in this 1799 paper had surnames (family names). For instance: "Alce- 26-[Husband] Lears John" and "Betty- 20- [Husband] Lears Reuben."

Most of these surnames appear to be tied to what labor the person did- for example "Sall Twine- 38- [husband] Gardr George" and "Grace- 35- [Husband] Cartr Jack". ("Sall Twine" may indicate that Sall was a twin). Notice that these last names appear most often [only?) for the men on that list.

****
[PART II OF THIS PANCOCOJAMS BLOG SERIES]

WASHINGTON'S SLAVE LIST, JUNE 1799
[extracted from] “Washington’s Slave List, June 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-04-02-0405 [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 4, 20 April 1799 – 13 December 1799, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999, pp. 527–542.]

[...]

"DOWER RIVER FARM
Names age
Ben -70- [Wife] Peg
Breechy -60- Ruth his wife
Johny- 39- Wife Esther
Richmond- 20- No Wife
Ned- 20
Heuky- 17- Son to Agnes
Joe- 22
Esther -40- Husbd Johny
Doll -58- Husbd Natt

Lydia -50 -[Husband] Smith Geo
Agnes -36- [Husband] Sambo
Alce- 26-[Husband] Lears John
Fanny- 30-[Husband] Alexanders
Betty- 20- [Husband] Lears Reuben
Doll -16 -No husbd -Daugh. to Doll
Cecelia -14 -No husbd - [Daughter to Agnes]
Jack -12- Son to Doll
Anderson- 11- [Son] to Agnes
Lydia- 11 -Daughr to Lydia

Children
Ralph- 9- Son to Sall
Charity- 2- Daughr [to Sall]
Charles -1 -Son [to Sall]
Davy
6 }
4 Cornelia’s Childn dece[ase].
2
Lewis
Alce
Suckey- 4 -Daughtr to Alce
Jude- 1- [Daughter to Alce]
Milley- 1- Daughr to Betty
Peter -9 -Son to Doll
Hannah -Husbd Ned
Workers 19
Children 10
Cook 1 making 30
Altogether at this Farm 57.

GW DOGUE RUN FARM
Names age
Ben- 57- Wife- Peg
Long Jack- 60- Wife Molly
Dick -46- [Wife] Charity
Carter Jack- 40- Grace
Simon -20 -No Wife
Lawrence- 14 -Son to Matilda GW
Judy- 50 -Husbd Gabriel
Molly— 45- [Husband] long Jack
Charity- 42 [Husband] Dick
Priscilla -36-[Husband] Slamin Joe
Linney- 27- No husband

Agnes -25- Husbd Will Mann
Sarah- 20- No Husband
Betty -16- [No husband]
Sophia -14-Siller’s daughr
Savary -13- daughr to Siller

Children
Penny- 11 [daughter to Siller]
Israel- 10- Son [to Siller]
Isrias- 3-[Son to Siller]
Christopher- 1- Son [to Siller]
Fomison- 11- Daughr to Charity
Dick -3- [Daughter to Charity] [GW may have mistakenly indicated "Ditto" for this entry as "Dick" is a male name.]
Bartley -6- [Daughter] to Linney
Matilda- 1- Daughr [to Linney]
Lucy -2- [Daughter] to Sarah
Guy -2- Son to Agnes
Hannah -60- No Husbd
Workers 16
Children 10
Pass’d labr 1 together 27

DOWER DOGUE RUN FARM
Names age
Lucy- 50 Husbd- Smith Natt
Sall Twine- 38- [husband] Gardr George
Grace- 35- [Husband] Cartr Jack
Peg -30- [Husband] Ben
Kate -18- [Husband] a Negro of Moreton’s
Ned -14- Son to Lucy

Children
Teney- 10- Daughr to Lucy
Barbary- 11- Daughr to Sall T.
Abbay- 10- [Daughter to Sall T.
Hannah -4 -[Daughter to Sall T.]
George- 1- Son [to Sall T.]
Roger- 10 -[Son] to Grace
Molly -6- Daugr [to Grace]
Jenny -3- [Daughter to Grace]

Billy- 6- Son to Peg
Fendal- 2- {Son to Peg]
Peg -8 Mo.- Daughr [to Peg]
Passed Labour
Sue -70- No Husband
Workers 6
Children 11
Pass’d labr 1 Making 18
Whole amt at this Farm 45

GW UNION FARM
Names age
London- 64- No wife
Joe- 24
Edy- 26- Husbd Davy
Children
Sarah- 6- Daughr to Edy
Nancy- 1- {Daughter to Edy]
Passed labr
Flora- 64- No Husband
Workers 3
Children 2
Pass’d labr 1 Making 6

DOWER UNION FARM
Names age
Sam Kitt- 78 -Wife [no name given, different location]
Cæsar- 50- No Wife
Paul- 36- [No wife]
John -16- Son to Betty
Betty- 62- No husbd
Lucy -50 -Husbd at [no name given, different location]
Fanny -36- [Husband] Charles
Jenny -34-[Husband] Mrs Washns George
Rachell- 34- No Husband
Milly- 22- [No husband]
Lucretia- 20- [No husband]
Gideon- 13- Son to Betty

Jamie- 11-[Son] to Fanny
Ephraim- 11- [Son] to Rachel
Children
Davy- 8- [Son to Rachel]
Guss- 3-[Son to Rachel]
Beck- 4- Daughr [to Rachel]
Eneas- 1- Son [to Rachel]
Elizabeth- 9- Daughr to Doll
Suckey- 11-[Daughter] to Doll at Mrs W.
Elias- 2 Mo.- [Son] to Doll at Mrs W
Daphne -5- Daughr to Fanny
Charles- 1- Son [to Fanny]
Felicia -7 -Daughr to Jenny
Jonathan -3- Son to [Jenny]
Hellam- 1-{Son to Jenny]
Diana- 1- Daughr to Milly
Jesse -6- Son to Patt dead
Passed labour
Daphne- 70- No Husband
Doll -52 Lame & pretds to be so
Workers 14
Children 14
Non-Workrs 2 Making 30
Whole amount at this Farm exclusive of French’s Neg[roe]s 36

[Pancocojams Editor's Note: The RECAPITULATION section isn’t included in this pancocojams post.]

A LIST OF NEGROS HIRED FROM MRS FRENCH
Names Ages
Will
Abram [Wife] Nancy
Paschall - No wife lately lost Cornelia
Tom -No wife
Isaac
Moses -[No wife]
James- 24-
Julius- 23
Spencer -20
Sabine -60 -Husband [no name given]
Lucy- 55-[Husband] McCarty’s George
Daphne- 40 [Husband] [no name given]
Delia- 35- No Husband
Grace- 28- Husband Mrs Washns Davy
Siss -25-[Husband] Jack Ditto
Milly- 18- No Husband
Nancy- 16- [No husband]
Hannah- 14- [No husband]
Daniel- 16- Son of Delia’s
Isaac- 14 - [Son] of Rose deceased
Matilda -13- Daughr of Daphne
Betty- 13- [Daughter of] Delia
Briney- 12- {Daughter of] Lucy
Grace- 12- [daughter of] Rose deceased
Children
Stately- 10- Son of Lucy’s
Renney- 6- Daughr [of Lucy]
Raison -3-[Daughter of Lucy]
Morgan -2 - Son [of Lucy]
Phœnix -1- [Son of Lucy]
Polly -9 -Daughr of Daphne’s
Maria -2 - [Daughter of Daphne]
Jack -7- Son of Delia
Julia -4- Daugh [of Delia]
Nelly -2- [Daughter of Delia]
Ambrose- 1- Son [of Delia]
Bob -10- [Son] of Grace
Sall -8- Daugh.[of Grace]
Judy -4 -[Daughter of Grace]
Augusta- 1 [Daughter of Grace]
Nancy- 10- [Daughter] of Sabine
Men 9
Women 9
Workg Boy’s & Girls 6
Children 16 In all 40"

****
This concludes Part II of this three part pancocojams series.

Thanks for visiting pancocojams.

Visitor comments are welcome.

Monday, February 17, 2020

Names Of Enslaved Black People On George Washington's 1799 Lists (Part I)

Edited by Azizi Powell

(Revised February 18, 2020)

This is Part I of a three part pancocojams series that excerpts a 1799 paper that was written by George Washington, the first President of the United States. That paper lists enslaved Black people who were owned by or otherwise controlled by George Washington.

Part I of this series presents some of the names from a paper listing George Washington's slaves that he wrote in June 1799. [These lists are divided into Part I and Part II only because of blog space considerations.]

Click https://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2020/02/names-of-enslaved-black-people-on_18.html for Part II of this series. Part II presents additional names from a paper listing George Washington's slaves that he wrote in June 1799. which is said to have been written by George Washington around 1799. [These lists are divided into Part I and Part II only because of blog space considerations.]

Click https://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2020/02/africanarabic-names-other-non-standard.html for Part III of this series. Part III of this series highlights the names or nicknames from George Washington's 1799 of slaves that I believe are from some traditional West African languages and from the Arabic language.

Part III of this series highlights other names (or nicknames) from that entire George Washington's 1799 paper of enslaved people that might have been considered unusual in 18th century United States.

****
The content of this post is presented for historical and onomastic purposes.

I'm most interested in documenting the types of names and nicknames that were used by these Black enslaved people, i.e. names that would be considered "standard" in the United States at that time, and names/nicknames that would be considered unusual during that time, including names that can be traced to West African languages or Arabic.

All copyrights remain with their owners.
Thanks to the government archives for sharing this information online.

RIP all those who are named in these lists.

****
PANCOCOJAMS EDITOR’S NOTES:
The information from this paper is reformatted to only include the people’s name, age [when given], marital status (when given for adults), and gender/mother’s name [when given].

In addition to that information, these paper includes notation about the people’s occupation [given as “Labour”], their disabilities, whether people [such as older people] were able to work, and where their spouse lived if they weren’t on the same farm/had the same owner. Some of that information is given under the heading of “Remarks” which I’ve left out of this reformatted list. This excerpt also doesn't include the notes at the end of this government archived paper.

George Washington used the word “Ditto” instead of written the same words that were used in that list before that name. For instance, “His wife” is given as “Ditto” if the words “His wife” were given before that name. Sometimes GW didn’t write either “His wife” or Ditto, but merely wrote the name of the wife.] For both of these entries, I’m writing “His wife” in brackets [Example: “George [His wife] Lydia”].

George Washington included the notation ""passed labr" which probably means "no longer able to work"

This pancocojams excerpt also doesn't include the information that was given about where the marital partners lived (when they lived away from the particular farm that is being enumerated on that list).

I added a hyphen to separate the name from the marital information/name or the mother's name.

When there wasn’t a space, I also added a space between the words “His wife” and the wife’s name.

**
Note that the name "Betty D[avis] (listed in Part I of this series) is written this way in that list. It's a coincidence that a White woman who is known as "Bette Davis" became a famous actress in the United States and that same White woman is also known because of the Kim Carnes song "Betty Davis Eyes". Click https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bette_Davis for information about the actress "Bette Davis".

**
It’s interesting to note how many of George Washington’s enslaved people were married (since the USA history that I remembering learning in school/college indicated that enslaved Black people in the USA couldn’t be married). It’s also interesting to read how many of the married couples that are listed in this paper had to live apart from each other on another farm and/or with another owner.

It's also interesting to note that most of the names of enslaved Black people in this 1799 paper were considered to be "standard" American names in the late 18th century, and most of those names are still standard American names now (in 2020).

These names could have been given to these enslaved people by their mothers or by other Black people, or by White people. These names could also have been self-selected by the people themselves.

I was interested to note that a few of these enslaved Black people in this 1799 paper had surnames (family names). For instance: "Alce- 26-[Husband] Lears John" and "Betty- 20- [Husband] Lears Reuben."
Most of these surnames appear to be tied to what labor the person did- for example "Sall Twine- 38- [husband] Gardr George" and "Grace- 35- [Husband] Cartr Jack". ("Sall Twine" may indicate that Sall was a twin). Notice that these last names appear most often [only?) for the men on that list.

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[PART I OF THIS PANCOCOJAMS BLOG SERIES]

WASHINGTON'S SLAVE LIST, JUNE 1799
[extracted from] “Washington’s Slave List, June 1799,” Founders Online, National Archives, accessed September 29, 2019, https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/06-04-02-0405. [Original source: The Papers of George Washington, Retirement Series, vol. 4, 20 April 1799 – 13 December 1799, ed. W. W. Abbot. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999, pp. 527–542.]

“Washington’s Slave List, June 1799
[June 1799]
Editorial Note
The list of Mount Vernon slaves which GW drew up, probably some time in June 1799, included those slaves owned by him outright, those who were controlled by him as part of Martha Washington’s dowry, and a number who were rented by him in 1786 by contract with Mrs. Penelope French at the time he acquired her life rights to land that she owned on Dogue Run.

The slaves Washington owned in his own right came from several sources. He was left eleven slaves by his father’s will; a portion of his half brother Lawrence Washington’s slaves, about a dozen in all, were willed to him after the death of Lawrence’s infant daughter and his widow; and Washington purchased from time to time slaves for himself, mostly before the Revolution.

Washington also hired for varying periods of time individual slaves, usually skilled artisans, from neighbors and acquaintances. These do not appear on this slave list.

Only one other complete roll of the slaves at Mount Vernon has been found. In February 1786 Washington recorded in his diary all the Mount Vernon slaves, dower and personal, the farms on which they lived, and their jobs. The total at that time came to 216; it did not include Mrs. French’s slaves, the use of whom Washington acquired later in the year.

There are also in the Washington Papers at the Library of Congress Washington’s lists of his tithables in Truro and Fairfax parishes (where Mount Vernon lies) for every year from 1760 through 1774. These have been printed in the Papers, Colonial Series. These lists name slaves living at Mount Vernon but do not include children under the age of sixteen and a few elderly slaves who were not tithed. The lists of tithables also include the names of indentured white servants and other whites living on the farms, including GW’s overseers and managers. For further information on GW’s slaves, see Charles Lee to GW, 13 Sept. 1786, and especially note 4 to that document, GW to William Triplett, 25 Sept. 1786, and notes 3 and 5 (Papers, Confederation Series, 4:247–49, 268–74), Memorandum: Division of Slaves [1762] and note to that document (Papers, Colonial Series, 7:172–74), Division of Slaves, 10 Dec. 1754 (ibid., 1:227–31), and Diaries, 4:277–83.

Negros Belonging to George Washington in his own right and by Marriage

GW TRADESMEN &CA
Names ages
Nat - His Wife Lucy
George- [His wife] Lydia
Isaac- [His wife] Kitty
James- 40 -[His wife] Darcus
Sambo - [His wife] Agnes
Davy- [His wife] Edy
Joe - [His wife] Dolshy
Tom- [His wife] Nanny
Moses- No Wife
Jacob- No Wife
George- His wife Sall
Harry- No wife
Boatswain- His wife Myrtilla
Dundee- His wife [no name, a location given]
Charles- [His wife] Fanny
Ben- [His wife] Penny
Ben- [His wife] Sinah
Forrester- No Wife
Nathan - Wife Peg
W. Muclus
Juba - No wife
Matilda
Frank- Wife Lucy
Will- no wife
amount 24

MANSION HOUSE
Passed Labour
Frank- 80 -No Wife
Gunner - 90 -Wife Judy
Sam - 40 -[Wife] Alce
amount  3
Trades &ca not engagd in Cropping 24
Total 2[7] not cultivators of the Soil3

DOWER TRADESMEN &CA
Names ages
Tom Davis -Wife [no name given]
Simms - [Wife] Daphne
Cyrus- [Wife] Lucy
Wilson- 15 -no wife
Godfrey -Wife- Mima
James - [Wife] Alla
Hanson - No wife
Peter - [No wife]
Nat - [no wife]
Daniel- [no wife]
Timothy- [no wife]
Sla[min] Joe -Wife Sylla
Chriss-[Wife, no name given]
Marcus- no Wife
Lucy- Husband Ho[use] Frank
Molly- No Husband
Charlotte -No husband
Sall- [no husband]
Caroline- Husb[an]d Peter Hardman
Kitty- [husband] Isaa.
Alce - [husband] Charles Freeman
Betty Davis- [husband] Mrs Washington’s—Dick
Dolshy - Husbd Joe
Anna- [husband, no name given]
Judy- 21- No Husband
Delphy -[no Husband]
Peter- No wife
Alla- Husbd James
amount 28

MANSION HOUSE
Will- Wife- Aggy
Joe -[Wife]- Sall
Mike No wife
Sinah- Husbd Ben
Mima- [Husband] Godfrey
Lucy- No Husband
Grace- Husbd Mr Lear’s Juba
Letty- No husband
Nancy- [No husband]
Viner- [No husband]
Eve- 17 [No husband]
Delia- 14

Children
Phil- Son to Lucy
Patty- daughter to [Lucy]
Rachel- 12 daughter to Caroline
Jemima- 9 [daughter to Caroline]
Leanthe- 8 [daughter to Caroline]
Polly- 6 [daughter to Caroline]
Peter—B. 4 [daughter to Caroline]
Emery- Son to Alce
Tom- Son to Alce
Charles - Son to Alce
Henriette- Daughr [to Alce]
Barbara- 10 [daughter] to Kitty
Levina- 6 [daughter to Kitty]
Elvey- [daughter] to Charlotte
Jenny- [daughter to Charlotte]
Eliza- [daughter to Charlotte]
Nancy- 9- [daughter] to Betty D[avis]
Oney- 6- [daughter to Betty D[avis]
Lucinda- 2- [daughter to Betty D[avis]
Daniel- 6- Son to Anna
Anna- 4- daugh. [to Anne]
Sandy- 1½ -Son [to Anne]
Sucky- 5- daughr to Dolshy
Dennis- 2 mo.- Son [to Dolshy]
John - [Son]- to Mima
Randolph- [Son to Mima]
Nancy- daughr to Sinah
Burwell- Son to Lucy

Passed labour
Doll- No husband
Jenny- [No husband]

Old  2
Workers 12
Children 28
Amount 42 Mansion House
House Serts Spinners &ca &ca 28
Total 70 Not employed in the Crops &ca
Geo: Washington 2[7]
Dower 70
In all 9[7] not employed in the Crops

GW MUDDY HOLE F[ARM]
Names age
Gabriel 30 Wife Judy
Uriah 24
Moses 19 Son to Darcus
Kate old Husbd Will
Nanny [old] [Husband] Tom
Sacky 40 No Husband
Darcus 36 Husbd James
Peg 34 [Husband] Nathan
Alce 38 [Husband] Sam
Amie 30 No Husband
Nancy 28 Husbd Abram
Molly 26 No Husband
Virgin- 24- Husbd Gabl
Letty- 19- No husband
Kate long -18- daughr of Kate
Kate sht- 18- [daughter of Alce]

Isbel 16 [daughter] Sarah—dead
Townshend 14 Son to Darcus

Children
Alce -8 -Daughr to Darcus
Nancy -2 -[daughter to Darcus]
Lucy -11- Daughr to Peg
Diana- 8- [Daughr to Peg]
Alexander 3 Son [to Peg]
Darcus- 1- Daughr [to Peg]
Oliver- 11- Son to Nancy
Siss -8- Daughr [to Nancy]
Martin- 1 -Son [to Nancy]
George- 8- [Son] to Alce
Adam- 7- [Son to Alce]
Cecelia- 2- Daughr [to Alce]
Sylvia- 10- [Daughter] to Molly
James -7 -Son [to Molly]
Rainey- 8 -Daughr to Amie
Urinah- 2- [Daughter to Arnie]
Billy- 2- Son to Letty
Henry- 1- Son to Letty

Workers 18
Children 18 together 36

DOWER MUDDY HOLE F[ARM]
Names age
Davy- 56- Wife Molly
Will—Mink -60 -[Wife] Kate
Molly -76- Husband Davy
Patience -14- Daughtr Dolly
Mary- 11- [daughter] Betty
Workers 3
Does nothing 1
Young 1 In all 5
Altogether at this Farm 41.

GW RIVER FARM
Names age
Robin- 80 nearly passed
Natt -55 -Wife Doll

Ned -56 -[Wife] Hanh
Ben -22
Peg 56 -Husbd old Ben
Judy- 55- [Husband] Gunna
Cloe- 55- No husband
Suckey- 50 =[No husband]
Suckey—Bay -46 husbd- [no name given]
Sall- 30- [husband] Postn Joe
Rose- 28- No husband
Penny- 20- Husbd Ben
Lucy- 18- [Husband] Cyrus
Hannah- 12- daughr [to?] Daphne dead
Daniel- 15- Son to Suckey
Henry- 11- Son to Sall
Nancy- 11- daugh. to Bay Suke

Children
Elijah- 7 -Son to Sall
Dennis- 5 -[Son to Sall]
Gutridge- 3 -[Son to Sall]
Polly- 1- daughr [to Sall]
Hagar- 6 -[Daughter] to Rose
Simon- 4- Son [to Rose]
Tom- 2 -[Son to Rose]
Joe- 1- {Son to Rose]
Nancy- 4 -Daughr to Bay Suke

Passed labour
Ruth 70 husbd Breechy
Workers 17
Children 9
Passed labr 1 together 27

****
This concludes Part I of this three part pancocojams series.

Thanks for visiting pancocojams.

Visitor comments are welcome.

What It's Like To Be Deaf? An African American Man Shares Remembrance Of His Childhood & Teen Years

Edited by Azizi Powell

This pancocojams post showcases a video blog by De'Angelo Brown, a Deaf man who shares some remembrances of his childhood and teenage years. In this vlog De'Angelo Brown encourages families to be more supportive of their Deaf children than his family was.

This post also features a few comments from this video's discussion thread.

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The content of this post is presented for cultural and educational purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

Thanks to De'Angelo Brown for sharing his remembrances with us and thanks also for his advocacy on behalf of Deaf people. Thanks to all those who are quoted in this post and thanks to De'Anglo Brown for publishing this vlog on YouTube.

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SHOWCASE VIDEO LOG (VLOG)- What is it like to be DEAF?



Iamdeffamilia, Feb 20, 2013


Hi! My name is De'Angelo Brown.

Thanks for watching!


[...]

This VLOG is to educate the hearing people and help spread the awareness about our Deaf culture. The VLOG part two coming soon but If you have any stories to share what you or someone you know went through similiar experience and want to make a VLOG please email Iamdeffamilia@gmail.com and I can be reached at hangouts by using that email as well.


I hope to stay connected with every one of you!! ---Def Familia
-snip-
I didn't include the two social media links that are given in this summary because they are no longer operable.

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Here are a few comments from this video's discussion thread (with numbers added for referencing purposes only)
1. Doffloffle27, 2013
"This is going to sound cheesy, but I honestly started trying to learn sign language because of the TV show Switched at Birth. But honestly, as I researched more into Deaf culture and language, I've found I've really come to have such an appreciation and respect for it. I couldn't imagine how difficult it is, yet I've seen so many Deaf people share their stories throughout which they're so positive. Rather than being pessimistic about their circumstance, they don't let it hinder them at all and so many of them come out with such amazing character! I think it would be really beneficial if it were possible for hearing people to try to go just one week without hearing. I think their perspective would really change and they'd be able to understand and respect Deaf people much better. I'm hoping to spend a part of my future helping to educate Deaf children as they grow up, and give them the love and support they need and that their families might not always provide simply because they don't know how. Keep being strong and confident in who you are! :) You're awesome!"

**
2. Darin McIntier, 2014
"Awesome video. I am the father of a deaf or HOH child. I never know which is the more appropriate to say. My son is 15 and hears 'well' with his hearing aides. He hears well enough that I often forget about it. Your comments about asking what they said in a movie or TV show really hit home for me. I am really big into the 'tempo' of a show or movie. I don't like to pause or interrupt the movie for anyone (ask my wife) - much less my son who has hearing aides and an FM system that is directly connected to the Audio system. I often tell him to put his "ears on" whenever he isn't wearing his hearing aides and starts interrupting the show with questions about who said what. Your video has opened my eyes to just how offensive that must be to him. I am trying to raise him to be independent in a hearing world, but I should be more sensitive to his needs than that. I really do thank you - your video has made a difference for this ignorant hearing father."

**
3. Tiffany Madden, 2014
"I'm deaf I know what is like when I was growing up hearing people bully me jump me because I was nice different but they know I was deaf they did not care about so they bully me and the hearing teachers did not care about it I got jump so I got home on the yellow bus I cry all the way home to tell my mom what happened my mom is hearing my family is hearing I'm the only deaf one in the family my mom was happy to have a deaf baby girl my dad was not okay with me born deaf my dad not in my life so my mom family teach me how to read lips understand what they say so being deaf in school with hearing kids was hard my mom fight the teachers for not giving me classes to learn understand my mom push the school to give me a try in different classes my mom said to me in front of the principal don't never let a hearing person say you can't do anything because you you are very smart . so what that my child is deaf my mom said my daughter deaf but all the hearing teachers did not wanna have me in there classes my mom stand by me and said to everyone you are going to give to teach my daughter the teachers was scared of my mom because see fight for me and she love me just the way I am so teach gave me a try in there classes they were shock I understand what I was doing my mom said my daughter us just like other kids but difference in her own way as deaf is beautiful to watch my daughter sign language in school I was still bully but that did not stop me from coming to school I teach some hearing kids sign language they wanna learn what is like to sign I said to the hearing kids you want to learn from me sign I laugh so I teach them I never been to a deaf school I learn what is like to be a hearing teenager but I'm still deaf forever I don't wish to be hearing because I like being deaf my mom always told me fight back at the hearing don't let them put you down like your dumb or something you are a smart baby girl I ever had my mom said she smile at me and hug me the end .so now I'm a woman 2014 I'm proud to be deaf I thank my mom for everything in my life she helped me stay strong woman my mom teach me to understand the outside world hearing people I thank my for standing by me.:-) :-)

**
4. AleahKCH, 2015
"I just wanna cry and hug this guy, not because that happened to him, but because he overcame so much (and he's pretty attractive). I hate that he barely even had his family in his corner, but he gained a new family at his school that gave him so much. His sense of pride is so admirable... I just love this video!"

**
5. Dannette Lira-Anderson, 2016
"Curious.. when are you planning to make part 2 vlog? I showed your video to my ASL class. They have learned a lot from you! Even share this information to hearing parents with deaf child. :-)"

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Visiting comments are welcome.