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Thursday, March 4, 2021

Video: "Ousmane Ba - Fulani Flute (Snippet from GRIOT Documentary)" And Video: "Djéré Fouta - Bayo"



Volker Goetze, Feb. 20, 2018
-snip-
Oismane Ba is Senegalese

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VIDEO #2 


Recal Vision, Feb. 3, 2016
-snip-
This video is from Guinea, West Africa.

****
 
Edited by Azizi Powell



This is Part II of a three part pancocojams series about Fulani music and other West  African music that includes flutes.

Part III presents two more videos of West African music that includes flutes.

Part II showcases two additional videos of West African music that includes flutes.

Click 
https://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2021/03/information-about-fulani-people-and.html for Part I of this pancocojams series. Part I showcases a YouTube video of Fulani music from Guinea, West Africa. This post also provides information about Fulani people and Fulani flutes.    

Click https://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2021/03/video-of-african-bamboo-flutedrum-dance.html for Part II of this pancocojams series. Part II showcases two additional videos of West African music that includes flutes.

Thanks to all West African flute players past and present. Tnanks to other West African musicans past and present. Thanks to all those who are associated with these YouTube examples and thanks to all those who are quoted in this post. Thanks also to the publishers of these examples on YouTube.
-snip-
This pancocojams series was inspired by comments in https://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2021/03/african-other-sources-of-african.html about West African flutes being sources of or influences for the African American fife and drum music traditions.  

Note: I believe that all of the videos in this three part pancocojams series showcases musicians who are Fulani except for the video given as #2 in Part II. Please correct this information if I am mistaken. Thank you.

Additional Fulani and non- Fulani videos of West African musics that includes flutes has been published and will be published on pancocojams. Click the "West African music that includes flutes" to find many of these posts.  

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This concludes Part III of this three part pancocojams series.

Thanks for visiting pancocojams.

Visitor comments are welcome. 

Video: "African Bamboo Flute/Drum & Dance - Ouagadougou West Africa" & Video: "Flute - Traditional Ghanaian, Highlife and Gospel melodies"


Yusuke Hoshi, Nov. 10, 2016

Thanks for watching ! This Band was awesome music especially flute guy making voice noise when he playing.I played different band that day. Recorded At Ouagadougou Burkina Faso Feb 24 2013.
-snip- 
Ouagadougou is the capital of Burkina Faso 


****
Edited by Azizi Powell

This is Part II of a three part pancocojams series about Fulani music and other West  African music that includes flutes.

Part II showcases two additional videos of West African music that includes flutes.

Click 
https://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2021/03/information-about-fulani-people-and.html for Part I of this pancocojams series. Part I showcases a YouTube video of Fulani music from Guinea, West Africa. This post also provides information about Fulani people and Fulani flutes.    

Click https://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2021/03/video-ousmane-ba-fulani-flute-snippet.html for Part III of this pancocojams series. Part III presents two more videos of West African music that includes flutes.

Thanks to all West African flute players past and present. Tnanks to other West African musicans past and present. Thanks to all those who are associated with these YouTube examples and thanks to all those who are quoted in this post. Thanks also to the publishers of these examples on YouTube.
-snip-
This pancocojams series was inspired by comments in https://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2021/03/african-other-sources-of-african.html about West African flutes being sources of or influences for the African American fife and drum music traditions.  

Note: I believe that all of the videos in this three part pancocojams series showcases musicians who are Fulani except for the video given as #2 in Part II. Please correct this information if I am mistaken. Thank you.

Additional Fulani and non- Fulani videos of West African musics that includes flutes has been published and will be published on pancocojams. Click the "West African music that includes flutes" to find many of these posts.

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VIDEO #2 




drumafricalondon, April 14, 2012

Daniel Asare, from Accra in Ghana, plays some traditional Ghanaian melodies on his flute. ***** This concludes Part II of this three part pancocojams series. Thanks for visiting pancocojams. Visitor comments are welcome.

Information About Fulani People and Fulani Flutes (with a YouTube video of Guinean singer Djere Fouta - "Wouro")



Djere Fouta, Dec. 2, 2016

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Edited by Azizi Powell


This is Part I of a three part pancocojams series about Fulani music and other West  African music that includes flutes.

Part I of this pancocojams series showcases a YouTube video of Fulani music from Guinea, West Africa. This post also provides information about Fulani people and Fulani flutes.    

Click https://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2021/03/video-of-african-bamboo-flutedrum-dance.html for Part II of this pancocojams series. Part II showcases two additional videos of West African music that includes flutes.

Click https://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2021/03/video-ousmane-ba-fulani-flute-snippet.html for Part III of this pancocojams series. Part III presents two more videos of West African music that includes flutes.

Thanks to all West African flute players past and present. Tnanks to other West African musicans past and present. Thanks to all those who are associated with these YouTube examples and thanks to all those who are quoted in this post. Thanks also to the publishers of these examples on YouTube.
-snip-
This pancocojams series was inspired by comments in https://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2021/03/african-other-sources-of-african.html about West African flutes being sources of or influences for the African American fife and drum music traditions.  

Note: I believe that all of the videos in this three part pancocojams series showcases musicians who are Fulani except for the video given as #2 in Part II. Please correct this information if I am mistaken. Thank you.

Additional Fulani and non- Fulani videos of West African musics that includes flutes has been published and will be published on pancocojams. Click the "West African music that includes flutes" to find many of these posts.

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INFORMATION ABOUT FULANI PEOPLE 
From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fula_people
"The Fula, Fulani, or Fulɓe people (Fula: Fulɓe, 𞤆𞤵𞤤𞤩𞤫; French: Peul; Hausa: Fulani or Hilani; Portuguese: Fula; Wolof: Pël; Bambara: Fulaw) are one of the largest ethnic groups in the Sahel and West Africa, widely dispersed across the region.[3] Inhabiting many countries, they live mainly in West Africa and northern parts of Central Africa but also in South Sudan, Sudan, and regions near the Red Sea coast. The approximate number of Fula people is unknown due to clashing definitions regarding Fula ethnicity; various estimates put the figure between 35[4][5] and 45 million worldwide.[6]

A significant proportion of the Fula – a third, or an estimated 12 to 13 million[7] – are pastoralists, and their ethnic group has the largest nomadic pastoral community in the world.[8][9] The majority of the Fula ethnic group consisted of semi-sedentary people[9] as well as sedentary settled farmers, scholars, artisans, merchants, and nobility.[10][11] As an ethnic group, they are bound together by the Fula language, their history[12][13][14] and their culture. More than 98% of the Fula are Muslims.[2][15]

[...]

Music

The Fula have a rich musical culture and play a variety of traditional instruments including drums, hoddu (a plucked skin-covered lute similar to a banjo), and riti or riiti (a one-string bowed instrument similar to a violin), in addition to vocal music. The well-known Senegalese Fula musician Baaba Maal sings in Pulaar on his recordings. Zaghareet or ululation is a popular form of vocal music formed by rapidly moving the tongue sideways and making a sharp, high sound.

Fulani music is as varied as its people. The numerous sub-groups all maintain unique repertoires of music and dance. Songs and dances reflect traditional life and are specifically designed for each individual occasion. Music is played at any occasion: when herding cattle, working in the fields, preparing food, or at the temple. Music is extremely important to the village life cycle with field cultivation, harvest and winnowing of millet performed to the rhythm of the songs and drums.

Fulani herders have a special affinity for the flute and violin nianioru. The young Fulani shepherd like to whistle and sing softly as they wander the silent savannah with cattle and goats. The truly Fulani instruments are the one-string viola of the Fulani (nianioru), the flute, the two to five string lute hoddu or molo, and the buuba and bawdi set of drums. But they are also influenced by the other instruments of the region such as the beautiful West African harp, the kora, and the balafon. Entertainment is the role of certain casts. The performance of music is the realm of specialized casts. The Griots or Awlube recite the history of the people, places and events of the community."....

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INFORMATION ABOUT FULANI FLUTES
From https://kassaflutes.com/about
written by Dave Kobrenski [no date given; retrieved March 4, 2021]
"The tambin likely originated with the Fula (or Peuhl) people, who live throughout West Africa, with large populations in Guinea and Mali. Their flutes are also used in the traditional music of the Malinké people in Guinea, as a result of their living in close proximity with the Fulani for many centuries. ….

 history and construction

Although it has existed for ages in West Africa, the tambin is a little-known instrument throughout the rest of the world, although it is slowly gaining attention for its characteristic rich sound and unique voice. Musicians like Mamady Mansare III (the father) first brought attention to the instrument through his playing with the Guinea national dance companies, Les Ballets Africains and Ballet Djoliba. The international group Fula Flute demonstrated the versatility of the instrument with their virtuoso performances of traditional songs for the flute. A growing number of contemporary African musicians, like Dramane Dembélé, Oumou Sangare, Issa Bagayogo, and several others have featured the tambin in their recordings. My own groups, Landaya and Donkilo! Afro Funk Orkestra feature the tambin heavily.

In West Africa, the tambin is normally constructed out of a thick, woody vine that grows along the banks of parts of the Niger River. The vine has sturdy outer walls and is entirely hollow, making it the perfect material for a flute. I have also seen tambin flutes in West Africa constructed out of metal pipe and pvc tubing, and these flutes sound remarkably similar to the wooden flutes (and in fact it is nearly impossible to tell the difference based on sound, especially given the great variety of “voices” that can be created due to the natural variances of the wooden vine itself).

A transverse (or side blown) flute, the tambin consists of only three holes, but has a range of two and a half octaves, achieved by overblowing, and has four distinct “registers”. The embouchure is formed out of a special substance knows as bee cerumin (a natural blend of beeswax and propolis made by tiny, stingless bees) that is a black color and can be easily shaped to help direct the passage of air into the hole. The cerumin, sticky when heated, dries to a hard consistency (due to the high level of propolis); that said, when playing the tambin for long durations on hot summer days, the embouchure can soften somewhat, so care must be taken!

tuning and sound aesthetics

Traditionally, the tambin is tuned to what would be called an equidistant heptatonic scale – that is, a seven note scale where all intervals are roughly equal. I say roughly because the tuning depends on the ear of the flute maker, who, without modern tuning devices, creates the flutes to produce the traditional songs and melodies of his particular region; variances from region to region in how these musical intervals are heard can certainly be found. The equidistant scale is an ancient scale indeed, and while it is tempting for the Western musician to characterize this scale as being “out of tune”, it is important to note that this tuning is quite deliberate and actually quite precise: the traditional songs of the Fulani and Malinké played with a Western scale would not be the same songs at all.*

The tambin flutes are most commonly found in the keys of A♭, G and F♯ (G♭) (approximately, because of the equidistant nature of the scales). Since the flute is often played with the balafon, the two “sizes” of flutes are relevant to whether you are playing music with a large balafon or a smaller balafon, which would also be tuned accordingly (many other turnings for the balafon exist and I don’t mean to generalize here; I’m speaking specifically of Malinké instruments that would be found in the Kouroussa region of Guinea). Further, I have seen two models of the Ab flute: a smaller one beginning on the pitch of C, and a slightly larger one beginning on Bb. While they play the same scale (just shifting the range), the determination of which starting note is used is likely decided by the size of the vine itself. While I haven’t encountered flutes tuned otherwise in this region of Guinea, I have met other players, from Burkina Faso, for example, who also have a larger flute tuned to F (and starting on the pitch of A) that is quite beautiful.

[…]

About our name [Kassa Flute Company]

“Kassa is a Malinké word that means granary. It is also the name for a family of rhythms and songs from the Malinké tradition that are used for work rhythms – both to accompany the workers in the field as well as to celebrate the fruits of their collective labor. The Kassa Flute Co. name signifies to us that if one works hard, anything is possible!

Wednesday, March 3, 2021

Similarities Between African American Fife And Drum Music & Certain Traditional African Music and Other Traditional Music (YouTube discussion thread comments)


Alan Lomax Archive, May 21, 2012

Othar Turner's Rising Star Fife & Drum band (Turner, fife; G.D. Young, bass drum; E.P. Burton, snare; Eddie Ware, snare) playing a picnic at Othar's farm. Shot by Alan Lomax, John Bishop, and Worth Long in Gravel Springs, Mississippi, August 1978. For more information about the American Patchwork filmwork, Alan Lomax, and his collections, visit http://culturalequity.org ​. [02.08.10]

****
Edited by Azizi Powell

This is Part II of a two part pancocojams series about African American fife and drum music.

Part II of this pancocojams series showcases a video of Othar Turner & the rising star fife and drum band. 

This post also presents YouTube comments from several discussion threads about the similariries of African American fife and drum music and certain traditional African music and other traditional music.

Click 
https://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2021/03/two-examples-of-african-american-fife.html for Part I of this pancocojams post. That post showcases two YouTube examples of African American fife and drum music.

Thanks to Othar Turner and the musicians in his band and thanks to other African American fife and drum musicians for their musical legacies. Thanks to all those who are associated with these YouTube examples and thanks to all those who are quoted in this post. Thanks also to the publishers of these examples on YouTube.

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SELECTED COMMENTS ABOUT THIS SUBJECT
The YouTube discussion threads that these comments come from are given in no particular order.
Those discussion threads and those sources are numbered for referencing purposes only.

Discussion thread #1
Othar Turner and the Rising Star Fife & Drum Band - Shimmy She Wobble (1) 
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RDar1ymGbjg&t=32s&ab_channel=SamCollins

1. r
achel king, 2012
"God bless the first enslaved Irishman for giving the first enslaved blackman a wooden fyffe  in Mississippi"

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Reply
2. Tize, 2012
"Why in the world should we African-Americans give thanks to an Irish or any european for preserving the African meloismatic and rhythmatic musical culture of our African ancestors?"

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3. Tize, 2012
"For anybody that thinks this music comes from anywhere in Europe, I suggest you go look up Fulani Flute and drum music, a genre played in West Africa. This is an extension of the music of our(African-Americans)" ancestors."

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4. Tize, 2012
"
This is false. The physical construction of the blues fife played in Northern MS is based on an old African model brought over by the transatlantic slave trade. In fact the construction process mimics that of the of Fula, a West African instrument not any Irish tool brought by indentured servants.

Got to love these crazy eurocentric revisionist theories about *AFRICAN*-american culture.........."
-snip-
"Ms" = "Mississippi"

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Reply
5. 黑佛, 2013
"I wouldn't have thought the origin of this song to be African American. This was a unkown piece of my culture. I will look up Fulani flute and drum music, thank you."

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6. Ornella Friggit, 2014
"This reminds me a lot of Gurunsi music (from the south of Burkina Faso/north of Ghana)."

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7. Jack Moralee, 2013
"I personally feel this song in-particular show's a strong relationship with black Americans & Irish people during the 19th century & backwards."

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Reply
8. Tize, 2013
"This aside from the use of some western instruments, this music is primarily derived from West African fulani flute and drum music, basically an offshoot, it came from the Lower Chattahoochee Valley(Georgia/Alabama) to Mississippi probably some time during the domestic slave trade.

Fusions between African and Celtic/Anglo music can be heard in the Appalachian mountains hillbilly/bluegrass/country music."

**
9. Jamesmartens55, 2013
"one could say the same about Rhodesia....

gotta love these afrocentric revisionist theories about EUROPEAN-African culture...."

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Reply
10. Tize, 2013
"What does Zimbabwe have to do with the fact that the Northern Mississippi fife & drum blues tradition is a descendant from the Fife and Drum blues in the Lower Chattahoochee Valley, which itself is a descendant from the Fulani Flute and Drum tradition of West Africa, and the blues fife used is based on the folk construction of the Fula-Flute, a West African instrument?

Just message me, and I send you scholarly researched, peer-reviewed, sources to back it up."

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Reply
11. Shane Morris Music, 2019
"I'm curious what leads you to believe that N. Mississippi fife & drum blues is a descendant of the Lower Chattahoochee Valley tradition? Is there research or documentation for this? I'm more inclined to think that it occurred independently, evolving on it's own after the Civil War, as also in TN and MO."
-snip-
"TN" = "Tennessee"
"MO" = "Missouri"

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12. G Mc, 2013
"OK, is this not a mix of majority African music with some Celtic taste?"

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Reply
13. Sakhal Nakhash, 2018
"Yeah, more like a European military march."

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Reply
14. austin konrad, 2019
"[Gerard mc namara not at all my dearest friend..not at all] [Yeah, more like a European military march.] (profanity deleted) king dingbats,  this music is indistinguishable from Gurunsi music."

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Reply
15. Sadat Salifu, 2020
"Austin konrad I love this! I am Ghanaian and I know the flute sound is straight out of northern Ghana!"

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16. 
saprissa9, 2019
"Holy crap it's actually made by black folks? When I first heard it in the movie I really thought it was an Irish song."
-snip-
The movie that is referenced in this comment (and throughout that discussion thread is 
"Gangs Of New York". Othat Turner & the Rising Star Fife & Drum Band's recording of Shimmy She Wobble" was part of that movie's opening sequence.

**

Reply
17. Judy Jacobs, 2020
"Yes, there's a long tradition of ballads of many kinds in the South. Many of the early settlers had Scots-Irish roots, and the slaves they kept there learned the songs from those sources. Many of the songs sung and played by both black and white folks originated in collections such as the child Ballads. Otha used to host big community parties during which he'd butcher a goat and cook it in a big iron pot. The band was usually made up of his family members. Cool beans, right?"

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Discussion thread #2
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Oyqf-jf2B_4&t=76s&ab_channel=AlanLomaxArchive
Othar Turner and the Rising Star Fife & Drum Band: Ida Reed (1978)

[This is the video that is embedded in this pancocojams post.] 

1. Gil Duarte Mokōî Ygarussu, 2013
"Very nice! The Otha, remember this bands of pifano in Brazil!!!

Banda de Pífano"

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2. B0bChorba. 2018
"This is 'Fife & Drum' music, early 19th century music, of course mixing African and white.  A beautiful mix that has been done for thousands of years folks.

You can hear Euro/British/Irish recreated & played well in the CD 'Marching Out of Time'  by The Fife & Drums of Colonial Williamsburg.  Welsh folk tunes, Purcell, well researched.

Could be heard in the Caribbean too.  Folkways released a CD sounding very good:  'Bongo, Backra, & Coolie, Vol. 2', recorded Jamaica 1975.

There was a fair bit recorded of this stuff in America, if you dig deep, North MS mostly.   Multi-instrumentalist Sid Hemphill, Napoleon Strickland, also compilation 'Traveling through the Jungle'.

There were also singers from the Georgia Sea Islands, where proper 18/19th century African roots could be heard sung most strongly, recorded in session with cane pipe and drum players from inland, Ed Young & Georgia Sea Island Singers."

**
Reply
3. B0bChorba, 2018
"BTW This CD is definitely worth the money:

'From Ear to Ear, the Passage of African Music through American Slavery', again by Colonial Williamsburg.  Recreated, but done with much thought (and I suspect loads of research), as well as feeling."

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4. Cvp1969, 2018
"This is straight from Africa.."

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Reply
5. Benji, 2019
"This is American"

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Reply
6. Goo Gel, 2019
"Yes, but the connection to Africa is clear. Listen to any of Othar's music with the Afrossippi Allstars and you can hear Senegalese musical instruments. Drum(+wind instrument) music is also at the core of much Ghanaian and other African countries' traditional music."

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Reply
7. Mississippi Delta Medicine, 2020
"Native flute and drums. Mizi-Ziibi. Black Indigenous Americans. 🏹🏹🏹"

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8. Joel Z. Williams, 2018
"This is the most pure, authentic folk music that I have ever discovered in the course of 40 years of searching for a clear link between the West African Fife and Drum traditional music and the Gheechee"

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Reply
9. Eric, 2018
"Irish Funk"

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Reply
10. One Earth one People one Race, 2020
"This is Igbo drum and flute from South Eastern Nigeria"

**
Reply
11. Mississippi Delta Medicine, 2020
"Black Indigenous Americans🏹🏹🏹"

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Reply 
12. Bluesmusic Andwhatnot, 2021
"These guys aren't "Gheechee" and there was likely no "fife and drum traditional music" in West Africa at the time of the slave trade, although there was likely a barrage of music that combined wind instrument and drum/other percussion, with some of those traditions surviving today. It's debatable if they had any direct influence on this tradition however, even though the rhythm and intonation is strongly influenced by West African music in a broad sense. Given that, this isn't "Igbo drum and flute" either. It's a particular African American tradition that could have been influenced by numerous West African sources, but is also pretty clearly influenced by European fife and drum tradition (With them playing snares and basses with western drum sticks while "marching" in a straight line). 

It's more likely that this particular instance of combining percussion with flute was more directly influenced by European fife and drum, rather than anything in Africa, with the music itself being the thing that's distinctly African in it's origin. It's important to remember that the Africa today is a very different Africa from the one 400-200 years ago and that, overwhelmingly, African slaves were in a completely different cultural environment once they reached the Americas, with many different people taken from many different regions and ethnic groups finding themselves among each other. No particular tradition or set of customs survived, especially in North America. The traditions that did survive would have been common to a sleuth of different ethnic groups in Africa, and would have lost any individual meaning in the Americas and instead took on an entirely new, somewhat homogeneous one reflective of the distinctly American life and environment of the enslaved. This is all to say, while many African elements permeated and continue to permeate through out African American culture and especially music, it's near impossible to definitively trace the origin point of these elements back to anything in particular in Africa.
-snip-
I reformatted this comment to increase its readability. 

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13. Cathair Patrick, 2018
"
That sounds really like African music. Really raw stuff."

**
14. Sandro Caje, 2020
"It´s wonderful! To me is a very impressive surprise that this culture survive in USA. With your permission, I want to show how this tradition is mantained in Brazilian Northeast. In my country, I believe that this music is the meeting of the indian flutes with african drums. I would like to know more about the history of this musical expression in USA. Here I send a link to a chapter of a documentary film made about "pifes" in Brazil. The great composer and musician Hermeto Paschoal played fife in fairs, with his brothers. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d8RvI0trPVU "

**
15. adalberto aparicio, 2021
"Thanks  for posting .They sound like an entire Samba band from Brazil!!!I Feeling souful and  magical while  watching  this ,best wishes to all."

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Discussion thread #3 
African-American Fife & Drum Music: Mississippi & Jamaica

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m6mRdPP6wRo&ab_channel=hultonclint

hultonclint,Feb. 1, 2009

"This is archival (?which) footage of a fife and drum group of Ed and Lonnie Young of Mississippi.  I believe it was recorded by Alan Lomax, sometime between 1959 and the early 60s.  They use a fife made of cane, and drums adapted from military bands.

It is interesting how similar it is, not just in form but also in actual content, to the fife and drum playing of "John Canoe" processional music of Jamaica.  I have put just a quick sample of that from a 1954 recording, at the end.

[My purpose for posting is to draw out this comparison, which would probably not be noticed otherwise (the clip being buried in Martin Scorcese's documentary on Blues), but if it appears to infringe someone's copyright, please contact me.]

EDIT: "This footage was shot during the 1966 Newport Folk Festival, indeed by Alan Lomax. Ed Young plays the fife; Lonnie Young, Sr., the snare; and G.D. Young, the bass drum. Lomax's audio recordings from Newport '66, including those of the Youngs, are available through the online archive of the Association for Cultural Equity (Alan Lomax Archive)." "


1. Wally Gator, 2009
"
Now THAT is roots right from Africa baby. Birth of Rock."

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2. Marcio Scolmeister, 2010
"In Brazil Banda de Pífano de Caruaru    youtube.com/watch?v=pNrs3I9kkHw

youtube.com/watch?v=ekNa4lNhchM&feature=related

youtube.com/watch?v=t0Zizj24fdc&feature=related"

**
3. guy br, 2011
"if you search for "Banda de Pífanos" from Brazil, you will find somenthing similar."

Great video!

**
4. MissLindo Sindane, 2013
"Im from South Africa and they still make music like this"

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Reply
5. João Weimar, 2020
"If I didn’t know the source, I could say this sound was made in Brazilian northeast, this is crazy. Much respect for African heritage."

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6. Tize, 2013
"Have you ever checked out Fulani flute and drum music of Upper West Africa? It's been studied that the blues fife mimics the construction of the Fula flute. Many Fulani were brought to North America."

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7. m adera, 2019
"You can witness West Africa in this, it's funny how these people never lost their connection to Mother Earth even years later., beautiful"

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8. 
Serero Serera, 2020
"My people in Burkina Faso play the very same melodies and drums up to this day. I was literally in tears watching this."

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9. MrOnyxRock, 2020
"WOW!  I am clearly late to this party.  I thought this style of fife & drum music was a Caribbean thing alone.  I need to learn about this in America."

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10. YISSAYAH KONGO Reings Over Yissolele, 2020
"I see myself dancing to this African dance"

****
This concludes Part II of this two part pancocojams series.

Thanks for visiting pancocojams.

Visitor comments are welcome.