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Friday, September 30, 2016

Pan-African Comments In A YouTube Discussion Of A Zulu Dance Video

Edited by Azizi Powell

This post showcases a YouTube video of "traditional" Zulu dancing*.

This post also presents selected comments from that video's discussion thread that reflect the pan-African** attitudes and beliefs that all people with some Black African descent share a common familial bond. Other comments in this compilation are about the dance itself, or are expressions of pride from Zulus, or are rebuttals or put downs of African Americans' comments that indicated their connection to Africa.

The content of this post is presented for cultural, folkloric, entertainment, and aesthetic purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

Thanks to all others who are featured in these videos and thanks to all those who are quoted in this post and thanks to the publishers of this YouTube video.

*WARNING (for educators and others who work in public settings) - Some of the dancers in this video are women with their breasts uncovered. I've put the word "traditional" in quotations because traditionally females didn't perform this warriors dance.

**A longer statement about the meaning of "pan-Africanism" is given below.

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WHAT "PAN-AFRICANISM" MEANS
From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pan-Africanism
"Pan-Africanism is a worldwide intellectual movement that aims to encourage and strengthen bonds of solidarity between all people of African descent. Based upon a common fate going back to the Atlantic slave trade, the movement extends beyond continental Africans, with a substantial support base amongst the African diaspora in the Caribbean and the United States.[1] It is based on the belief that unity is vital to economic, social, and political progress and aims to "unify and uplift" people of African descent.[2] The ideology asserts that the fate of all African peoples and countries are intertwined. At its core Pan-Africanism is "a belief that African peoples, both on the continent and in the diaspora, share not merely a common history, but a common destiny".[3]
-snip-
"Pan-Africanism" also may have political connotations. However, in this post I'm focusing on the meanings that are given above.

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SHOWCASE VIDEO: Professional Zulu Dancing



Tekweni, Published on Oct 27, 2012

Exciting traditional female and male Zulu Dancing. Filmed by Tekweni TV Productions, a television production company based in Durban South Africa. www.satvchannel.com 0027 31 2611034.

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NOTES ABOUT THESE SELECTED COMMENTS
These comments are given in chronological order based on their posting date on YouTube, with the oldest comments given first, except for comments. However, these comments may not be in consecutive order.

The comments in this compilation are only a sample up to this date of those comments whose subject matter is described above.

Sub-threads (comment exchanges) are noted by the word "reply" followed by the response comment/s. I also used four asterisks instead of two to mark the end of a sub-thread.

I've assigned numbers for referencing purposes only.

As per the policies of this blog, except for the word "damn", amended spelling is used for profanity. That amended spelling is indicated by the use of "&" symbol in place of one or more letters in those words.

For a few of these comments, I've added brief definitions or other explanatory comments. Additions & corrections are welcome.

SELECTED COMMENTS
From https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HxhhF_nHxIs
"Professional Zulu Dancing"

2014
1. Moriyon Ipuole (BEATS BY WOLFMAN)
"someone please help interprete the intro lines"

**
Reply
2. Lindelwe Manqele
"Amazondo soneni...hatred! what have we done?"

Nampa bekhuluma ngathi soneni....we are the talk of people, what have we done bad?

Eish I tried my best its not easy to inteprete isiZulu
-snip-
Here's a definition of "eish" from http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=eish
"Used in South African English and Afrikaans to express exasperation or disbelief. The word was first transliterated from the Xhosa language to Afrikaans, and then into South African English."

"So, there's been ANOTHER power outage, hey, bru? Eish."

"Daar is petrol in Suid-Afrika??? Eish!"


#no way #really #is it #seriously #good grief
by Cpl. Springbok November 11, 2007...

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3. bh5496
"Guys I'm pretty sure the little one is a little person/ midget. Look close at her face, and the fact that she dances so professionally."

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2015
4. Will Pitsz
"Never seen nothing like this in my life. Powerful beat. I wish that I knew what they were saying."

**
Reply
5. Mzwandile Qwabe
"they were saying leave this earth with its things. it sounds better in zulu"

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6. Bonneo Starr
"Makes me fee so proud to be a black man on planet Earth! Lets not compare family. we are all sons and daughters of the sun God Heru, both in Africa and America! We are one mind, one beat, one family."

**
7. LaDonna Victor1
"I am African American. Proud of my African heritage and American culture. The Zulu people are admired for their courage and strength throughout the world. Shaka Zulu was an amazing leader--and his descendants and people pay homage to his legacy through the celebration of their rich heritage."

**
8. Jewell Smith
"I love this! I am a black woman born in america, yet my African ancestors run deep in me. I can never her a drum a stay motionless. Why must we compare black americans to a black Africans? We/I am strong because of my African roots!! NO one can tell me anything different!!"

**
9. Black Beauty
"My mothetland Alkebulan.
Am so proud of being an ivoirien.
Your guys make me cry..so beautifull to watch you dancing with passion and love👍
One africa ❤"

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10. Gmsrebukethetempter
"The negro of America and these people are 2 completely different people"

**
Reply
11. The 4th Horseman
"Blacks in America are a watered down version.Blacks basically dance the same way but it has been turned into sexual versions of the real thing."

**
Reply
12. B Moe
"Watered down version??"

**
Reply
13. The 4th Horseman
"Poor choice of words.But African dancing and singing is clearly an influence in black culture."

**
Reply
14. B Moe
"African american dance isn't watered down, it also isn't an influence. It is AFRICAN MUSIC AND DANCE, we are the descendants of AFRICANS. We are PROUD of THAT!

Anglo americans music, and dance is watered down, African inspired music...because they take it from US!

With the exception of these hebrews israelites, The vast majority of AFRICAN americans look at West and Central Africa as our ancestral homelands. We LOVE ALL AFRICANS, except arabs...we don't like arabs, of afrikaners, or boers!"
-snip-
From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Hebrew_Israelites
"Black Hebrew Israelites (also called Black Hebrews, African Hebrew Israelites, and Hebrew Israelites) are groups of African Americans who believe they are descendants of the ancient Israelites. Black Hebrews adhere in varying degrees to the religious beliefs and practices of both Christianity and Judaism. They are not recognized as Jews by the greater Jewish community."

**
Reply
15. B Moe
"But we have nothing but love for the rest of yall"

**
Reply
16. marina nononsense
"+B Moe :)"

**
Reply
17. Gibbs Jakatiga
"+B Moe Thanks....When i watched tv in Africa as a child which was not often. I always asked my dad what's that tribe man doing on tv. I always thought all of you were from my tribe and that you spoke languages like Swahili. Growing up and school made me realise that some of our people were taken by force to the America as slaves. People have tried to bring differences between us but as a child i could realize that you are part of us...."Upendo, Umoja na Amani iwe na Wafrika wote" translation May Love, Unity and Peace prevail amongst Africans."
-snip-
Google translation of the Swahili words "Upendo, Umoja na Amani iwe na Wafrika wote" = "Love, Unity and Peace to all Africans"

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18. Gmsrebukethetempter
"The negro of America and these people are 2 completely different people"
-snip-
Note that spelling "Negro" with a lower case "n" is probably an intentional putdown.

**
Reply
19. Brooke Lynn
"Lol. We're African decent. You're European decent. Blood doesn't change. And why do you insist on putting Black Americans down? ...
Because arrogance runs in your blood? Slave owner mentality. But you'd be proud of that.
FYI, you own no one."

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20. Austin Moffatt
"chuckling at all the america-born-and-raised black kids talking sh&t* about white people like they literally came from w/e tribe this is in the video.

stfu kids you're american, not african."

**
Reply
21. John Moore
"Austin Moffatt: why you mad? It's just music, but despite 400yrs of bullsh&t it is still in the DNA of Black folks. You don't have to be mad about it, I'm sure your ancestors had some drums and pipes and sh&t, and danced around in traditional sh&t, like the Greeks. Stop Hating."

**
Reply
22. Zorgoon Trollstones
"you dumbarse. That's like saying Euromericans cannot identify with their English, German, Italian, French etc roots. Wow, what an outstandingly poor mental capacity you have sir."

**
Reply
23. The merc with a mouth
"+Skummelskog Trollbutt the point is the black kids in America cant identify with their roots they are too busy twearking and updating their twitter accounts"

**
Reply
24. Zorgoon Trollstones
"That's a stereotype. Twerking is an African dance that comes from the Congo. It's good to see African Americans getting interested in the motherland. It's a step forward and a beautiful thing, though they should know none of them are Zulu. Not even close."

**
Reply
25. Kiryu San
"I agree, I've lived in Swaziland. Black Americans and Africans could not be more different."

**
Reply
26. Metalicification
"At least Black Americans are becoming more aware of the lands that their ancestors were torn from by Europeans. Every Black American is a descendant from Africa. Let them watch, read, and understand the beautiful culture their fathers were from!"

**
Reply
27. icky mcboss
"Just because we where kept ignorant of our roots doesn't mean we are no longer of african decent. I had to get curious about my ancestors before I learned anything about them. My label may be American, but my blood says otherwise. We only have a cultural difference. Smh I hate living in America, most people here seem to be just as dull minded as you on just about anything."
-snip-
"smh" = "shake my head" in annoyance and/or exasperation, anger etc.

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28. B Moe
"We are AFRICANS who live in america....honestly we chuckle at why you care so much."

**
Reply
29. Zorgoon Trollstones
"DNA doesn't lie. An African anywhere in the world is still an African. Does an Asian American cease to be Asian because his family has lived on American soil for over 200 years? No. You are what you are. You are a European American. Is anyone contesting that, or blocking you from praising English things or Italian things or Irish things? No.so go find some other outlet for your unrest. Thanks!"

**
Reply
30. B Moe
"I don't know why they are so worried about who we are? "

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31. Jeff Weeks
"+Metalicification let him know this is all white people have been doing separating black Americans from their culture because it threatens them . It has been the policy of the American government to separate the black man from the mother land ."

**
Reply
32. LaDonna Victor
"Shaking my head at the perpetual ignorance of white people who know absolutely NOTHING about the origins of Black people on this earth. We're all descendants of AFRICA, idiot."

**
Reply
33. Darren Moore
"+Kiryu San I would think so after 500 years of separation/alienation from the continent of our forbears. Same thing goes for whites in America. Aside from the English , how many of them can speak the languages of their ancestors etc. The only difference is that Europeans forfeited their identities willingly, whereas the African was beaten out of the black man in America as African culture/cultures were seen as alien and threatening to them."

**
Reply
34. Darren Moore
"White "Americans"= European descent
Black "Americans"= Americans of African "descent" Blacks in America have just as much right to explore their roots as American whites already do with Ireland, England, Italy etc. Many still call themselves by their ancestral homeland before American. Is it so wrong for Black Americans to claim their African ancestry. However, on the flip side, no one should hi jack another group's identity. I think that because blacks in America were stripped of their languages, religions, and ethnic identities and were forbidden to have them, that their descendants are striving so hard to find their roots. The slave trade did wonders to obliterate black peoples roots in Africa."

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35. RickyboyH
"Very talented group of people!
Greetings to my amaZulu brothers & sisters!"

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2016
36. Tladi Busiswa Ayanda Staroro
"I'm so proud of the Africans whether you are from West, East or south Africa we are all blacks #lets unite and be one"

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37. Thembalethu The Curse
"yebo! proud Zulu! we appreciate the love from our American Brothers and Sisters. #one_love
-snip-
"Yebo" is Zulu for "yes".

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38. Christopher Barksdale
"I read all F&&k up white comments on here I am african american and been all over africa and seen trade routes 1000 years old to say Zulu's never traveled to Youba land or Nigeria or Benin, or even Etheopia is dumb as hell white people and some blacks just cannot accept african people knew of one another or worse think we to stupid to Travel even to Mexico where big ass black african heads are there looking at you saying we were here some look like Zulu's looooooooooooooooool"

**
Reply
40. James Brohard
"+Christopher Barksdale Sorry you feel whites offend you, personally I think this video is energetic and beautiful. ALL PEOPLE ARE BEAUTIFUL. It's the spice of life that makes us different and for the most of us appreciate each other!!!!!! It's the few bad apples, not matter what race that screws it up for us. Please keep that in mind."

**
Reply
41. Joe Ndluli
"Not sure what you mean by '...to say Zulu's never travelled to Youba land or Nigeria or Benin, or even Ethiopia...'. A quick clarification. The amaZulu are a Bantu ethnic group specific to Southern Africa. They are part of the Nguni super group which arrived in South Africa about 100 AD. (The origin of the Nguni is linked to a people who migrated southwards from Central/Southeast Africa over three millennia ago).
It was only in the 17th century that a man called “Zulu kaMalandela” (1627-1709) became the founder and chief of the Zulu clan. So prior to this there was no amaZulu. In fact, it was not too long ago that the famous Zulu King Shaka was ruler of the amaZulu (early 1800’s).
Ngitshele, ngizokhohlwa, ngibonise, ngingase ngikhumbule, ngimbandakanye, ngizoqonda.
-snip-
According to Google translate, "Ngitshele, ngizokhohlwa, ngibonise, ngingase ngikhumbule, ngimbandakanye, ngizoqonda" are Zulu words that translates in English to "Tell me, blot, Show me, I remember, to participate, we will gain."
-snip-
Is "blot" a form of the word "brother"?

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42. Aeri cah
"African American here to show my love and respect!"

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43. thiara sarr
"we love you too. african sister from Senegal"

**
Reply
44. RoninAli1
"Peace. Love & Respect to the African family worldwide."

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Reply
45. stuffguy666
"American of African decent makes more scenes also you may have Caucasian in your DNA atleast 1 out 3 blacks in the USA are partly mixed."

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46. Chanell Monroe
"I love, love, love, seeing African culture like this! 💓"
-snip-
A screen photo for this commenter was of a young Black woman.

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Reply
47. thiara sarr
"we love you too lil sis!"

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48. ede imarhi
"Am an African, from Nigeria to be precise. The Chinese never hide their culture. The Indians, French, Italians, Germans, Portuguese etc. They all never hide their culture... so why should we? Let's promote our culture and hold our heads up high while we do it. We are beautiful. Am an African, yes I am, and I will not have it any other way. Cheers."

**
Reply
49. King Tri - Gizanai
"i was thinking the same thing #respect from jamaica"
-snip-
Another commenter who praised this video identified himself [herself] as “Trini”

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50. TRUEFUNKSOULDIER
"SPEECHLESS! AND IN AWE! MOTHER AFRICA I LOVE YOU!!!"

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51. Tanner Herzman
"women are warriors in zulu culture as well?"

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Reply
52. Maggie Mc (The Wrong Princess)
"a bit late but yes, they were considered equal, we are after all"

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53. saucilips
"Now I see where I got my soul from. Thank you, Africa!"

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54. cocoa046
"Wow, this was amazing! I am an African American from the United States who was so awe struck at the Zulus drumming and dancing in the movie Shaka that I visited Durban and stayed in a traditional hut for 2 days in the place where the movie was made. about 7 years ago. I saw first hand what you all do!!! I was then and continue to be awe struck at the passion and skill you all have!!! Love you all!!"

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55. thiara sarr
"i'm african from Senegal west Africa. this vid is so amazing and beautiful, powerful dance. i love south african culture and to see these women dancing as warriors just make me proud to be African. God bless you and also our African American brothers and sisters who appreciate African cultures!"

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56. Christopher Barksdale
"dam i love ma people"

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Reply
57. Silver Cat
"I do to.This make a sister want to cry.I have not traveled to any part of the Motherland yet soon come tho.If God is willing"

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58. Lambilia Brown
"my beautiful mother land. no place can compare!!! this is why they are always taking from Africa."

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59. Luis Berrios Vela
"Nuestras raices negroides en el Perú...excelente..."
-snip-
Google translate from Spanish to English: "Our Negroid [Black] roots in Peru- excellant"

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60. Bhekani Zitha
"proud of my culture. just come to South Africa and you'll experience this marvelous piece of art! come to Nongoma, Msinga, Ulundi, Nquthu, and other rural areas so you can be captivated!!!!!!! #dope"
-snip-
The African American Vernacular English meaning of "#dope" = "great"/"exceptionally good" is probably meant here.

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61. Edith Thamae
"my zulu brothers n sisters never fail when it came to their culture they don't care who says what proudly south afri an!"

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62. Kimberly Banuet
"I AM PROUD TO BE AFRICAN AMERICAN AND I EMBRACE ALL THINGS THAT ARE PART OF MY ANCESTRY. THIS IS BEAUTIFUL AND AMAZING. I SEE MUCH OF THE CULTURE THAT OUR ANCESTERS HELD ON TO DURING SLAVERY THROUGH MUCH OF OUR MUSICAL AND DANCE EXPRESSION HERE IN AMERICA."

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Reply
63. Arch Linux
"Zulus live in South Africa. I doubt they're part of your ancestry."

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64. Androidgames Or apps
"+Arch Linux true ,her ancestors are from west africa"

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65. Daniel fountain
"African American father of 3 here, showing my children our /their heritage. Much love!!"

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66. Ricky Smith
"This is so powerful I can vision myself doing this Zulu Dance.....Proud to be a part of this Heritage, I Am African American!!"

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67. Mike Pitts
"much love from African American brother great job"

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68. darbyryan1
"Zulu Culture, not African Culture"

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Reply
69. Giselle Thomas
"How can you be part of your mother and not your mothers child. Africa is a continent yes but has birthed many different cultures within the culture that is Africa."

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70. Dicky Cecil
"Zulu is an African tribe, but I see what your saying, african culture differentiates vastly across the enormous lands"

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71. Precious Mthembu
"I love my culture #ZuluPride"

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Wednesday, September 28, 2016

Dread Drama - Did Celts And/Or Other White People Historically Wear Their Hair In Dreadlocks?

Edited by Azizi Powell

This post presents excerpts and comments from a 2011 [?] blog post entitled "Dread drama". Participants in that blog discussed whether it is traditional for White people to wear dreadlocks or is that a form of cultural appropriation.

The content of this post is presented for historical, sociological, and cultural purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

Thanks to all those who are quoted in this post.

Click http://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2016/03/white-people-with-dreadlocks-with.html "White People With Dreadlocks (With Special Attention to Ru-Paul Drag Race Contestant Thorgy Thor)" for a related pancocojams on White people wearing dreadlocks.

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PANCOCOJAMS EDITOR'S NOTE
These excerpts are numbered for referencing purposes.

Note that some of the posts and comments that are excerpted here contain profanity.

As per the policy of this blog, amended spelling is used for words that are considered profanity.

I think that the blog post entitled "Dread Drama" was first posted by note-a-bear. But I'm not sure about that. Excerpt #1 presents several comments that were published in response to that blog post. Excerpt #2 quotes that blog post and presents other comments, and Excerpt #3 referenced that note-a-bear blog post.

The quotes given in italics below were written that way in those comments. I believe the blogger is quoted more than one other commenter. However, no names were given (that I could find) for those commenters. I think I attributed the right name to the bloggers who are quoting those other commenters. My apologies if I gave the wrong attribution. Additions and corrections are welcome.

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FEATURED EXCERPTS
EXCERPT #1:
From http://note-a-bear.tumblr.com/post/10299295563/dread-drama "Dread drama"; Dumbthingswhitepplsay & other commenters [in italics], September 16, 2011
...."Reblogging because seriously white people. Seriously.
Well, the Celts did have dreadlocks. The Romans reported Celtic warriors as having “hair like snakes,” which has been taken to imply that they had dreadlocks. Its also been recorded that Germanic tribes, Greeks, and Vikings often wore dreadlocks as all. So as far as historically speaking, there is plenty of precedent for white people having dreads. Its also considered to have Biblical origins, with Delilah cutting off Samson’s “seven locks.”

So I’m going to say, yeah, its not appropriative for white people to have dreads. My ethnic ancestory is Celtic/Viking, both of which have been recorded as historically having dreads. I would never get dreads, but still.

The earliest recording, I believe, is Egypt where dreads are seen in hieroglyphs.

As for the entire rest of “Rafiki’s” post (spiritual name? wtf?), I’m not even going to touch that. As someone with Scottish ancestry who’s Scottish relatives came to the US and worked their asses off, I’m not sure what the hell this Scottish people being lazy bullsh&t* is.

this was the wrong conversation to butt in the middle of if you are white

Couple things: Samson and Delilah probably weren’t “white” as the ideology exists today…and neither were the Egyptians (people from Kemet…”land of the blacks”.) So…maybe those two groups shouldn’t be used to bolster your point?



I tried real hard not to butt in on this, but I ahve [sic] to say:

Germanic, Gallic, and Celtic hairstyles, prior to Roman Conquest, and subsequent Anglo-/Germanic empire-building were absolutely not dreadlocks as we speak of them.

What I will concede to is that there were traditions of matting, plaiting, and braiding hair. The Roman references to “hair like snakes” could just as easily be speaking to long hair, since, as an essentially Mediterranean nation, Rome generally ascribed to short hair for those citizens in power. The military (through which nearly every Roman-born citizen and sub-citizen had to pass upon achieving adulthood) required short hair. Short hair was considered the standard for Romans.

Having gotten that out of the way, we can move on to what they would have seen from almost every non-Roman/non-warm weather nation they came across: Long, matted, braided, or otherwise “unkempt” hair by their standards. Hence, “hair of snakes.” Never mind that if you look at the other big Greco-Roman reference to “hair of snakes” (Medusa), archaeologists and anthropologists have ascribed that hair to the what would be considered, by our standards, mussed, dirtied, or generally “unrefined” hairstyles.

So, that brings us back to the Gauls, the Celts, the Saxons, the (Visi-, Ostro-) Goths, the Vandals, the Angles, and just about everyone North of what is now Italy. All those tribes had traditions of plaiting hair. They also, did not have the same traditions of cutting hair that the Romans did.

That is the only conceit I will give in this matter of dreadlocks.

Also, let’s be real, the Romans were notoriously unreliable observers when it came to the people north of contemporary Italy. Half of their references to the people of the North were to call them “Black” or some variation thereof.

So, y'know, don’t use the Romans to bolster your argument, in general."

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EXCERPT #2
From http://marzipanandminutiae.tumblr.com/post/147900986482/dread-drama (via theroguefeminist), [two commenters, screen names ?]
"I normally don’t bother putting my two cents in about dreadlocks (as a white girl I don’t really think its my place) but I do know a few things about celtic ‘dreadlocks,’ which is why I get annoyed when people of celtic decent use their heritage to justify having dreadlocks.

For one thing they weren’t even called dreadlocks they’re gleebs, I think the term dreadlock in itself is an appropriated term. Another thing is they weren’t made like any of the modern dreadlocks we see today. They were most commonly worn by warriors going into battle who would matt their hair and then cake it with mud/clay to make intimidating shapes to scare their enemies. This could therefore mean they were more like punk spikes than dreadlocks. Some however did just cake their matts with mud and leave them down so they could look a bit like modern dreadlocks. But it could be argued unless you cake your hair with mud you can’t use being a celt to justify having dreadlocks. Some people think the celts had matted hair because they were barbarians who never washed or brushed their hair which could be equally true, and some white people do make dreadlocks this way. But that is disgusting in my opinion and it is part of the reason dreadlocks have such a bad reputation, so if you have hair like that I suggest you just call it matted and not dreadlocked.

I will admit that there was a form of gleeb worn by the wealthier celts which may seem more appealing. They would have twisted their hair and tied pretty yarns around it, similar to a lot of white people with dreadlocks today. However these were not matted they were twists, perhaps they were similar to the twist and pull dreadlock making method but the structure of them were different. I’ve experimented with this form of gleeb on my hair, which is very stereotypical celtic hair (think Merida in Brave) and the twists do stay in due to the curl and dryness of my hair. However when I tried it on my sister who has only a gentle wave it was impossible, her hair was far too fine and slippy. They can be brushed out but I was also able to wash my hair and they remained intact when I did not use conditioner in the areas with gleebs I just had to tidy them a bit. I only kept them in for a month so perhaps over time the feel of them would have changed to a more dreadlock type form but they did look more like twists than dreadlocks.

In my opinion you shouldn’t use being celtic as an excuse to have dreadlocks. Celtic gleebs were a different thing and anyone uses being celtic as an excuse they should do their research into it first and know not to call them dreadlocks. It is very difficult to find any references for gleebs, I came across it in obscure texts in my university library whilst researching ancient irish textiles and was interested so I looked into it a bit more. As it is written about in so few places and they often refer to the same clans, I assume only a few clans actually wore gleebs, perhaps all these clans had very curly hair like mines making it possible to make gleebs.

Have I ever mentioned how relieved I am when I check the notes on something and find actual, useful commentary from white folks?

If I haven’t I’m saying it now


The main tradition of hair-matting in Europe closer to the modern era was the Polish plait.

Which is, basically, a giant matted mass of hair maintained with wax or water in which certain herbs had been steeped. Early in their popularity, they were believed to act as amulets that drew illness away from the body. There were categories and styling techniques, but outside eastern Europe, they were viewed largely with disgust. In the 18th and 19th centuries, they developed an alternate name: Jewish plaits. Anti-Semitism ahoy!

There were beliefs that the plaits were caused by a disease; in the 19th century it was said to be spread in false hairpieces from Poland. One “scientist” even theorized that wearing Polish folk costume would cause a person to develop severly matted hair.

Most of the negative reaction was ethnic prejudice, but some of it was warranted. Polish plaits allegedly don’t smell very good and can contain skin flakes, scalp oils, and sometimes even dried blood. They’re also often moist and sticky to the touch.

I can’t think why anyone would want to have that hairstyle, but if you’re a white person and you want to hair-mat, guess what? That’s the proper term for and history of the result you’ll get. It is not the same as dreadlocks and it has its own issues so you should really do proper research on Polish plaits (also called elflocks, from the belief that curses or malevolent spirits caused them) if you really must mat your hair.

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EXCERPT #3
From http://becausegoodheroesdeservekidneys.tumblr.com/post/72685531990/but-the-celts-wore-dreadlockstattoosbody “BUT THE CELTS WORE DREADLOCKS/TATTOOS/BODY MODS!!!11!!1”
Reblogged 2 years ago from sonnetscrewdriver (originally from so-treu), retrieved September 28, 2016
...."CELTIC DREADLOCKS.....
"first off, note-a-bear has a great post on how those dreadlocks that the Celts were supposedly wearing actually weren’t dreadlocks as we define them today. that’s when sh&t like historical context and knowing of what the f&&k you speak come into play...

i always think about Woodstock. like, if white folks were ever going to support dreadlocks en masse, *that* would be the time you’d see it. but you don’t. at. all.

you know when you do see white ppl starting to rock dreads, tho? after Bob Marley became an international mega superstar. but it’s not appropriation. right.

seriously, if you can find me a picture of a group of white people (from either the U.S. or Europe) wearing dreadlocks *before 1965ish*, and they *weren’t* consciously setting themselves off from the mainstream in some way (i.e. a religious cult or something) but wearing them as a cultural expression of their own culture, you win. you win everything, actually. because i’m pretty sure you’re not going to find it.

but don’t worry. i’ll wait.

ETA: i guess maybe the vikings had “dreads” too? even still, two(ish) ethnic groups a continental/racial tradition do not make. see: the rest of my post.

I’ve never come across any contemporary sources that describe Celtic hairstyles in terms of what we would understand to be dreadlocks. The descriptions I’ve read pretty much just describe them as braids or pigtails, thereby creating the lovely image of a heavily-armed hulk with a beard like a bramble patch sporting the kind of hairdo most of us would identify with schoolgirls. Same goes for the Norse. I would be very suspicious of anyone trying to claim there was a white tradition that incorporated anything like dreadlocks. Outside of Africa and places that have a large concentration of people with African heritage, the only traditions I know of that incorporate anything vaguely similar are Hinduism and some of Aztecs’ priesthood. Though I did read in an article on modern Buddhism that some Tibetan monks are now apparently favouring dreadlocks over the more traditional shaved head.

The only European thing I can think of is what’s called a Polish plait, but that doesn’t look so much like dreadlocks as it does a hairy loaf of bread....

OH CHRIST WHY ARE PEOPLE STILL DOING THE “CELTIC DREADLOCKS” THING SIT DOWN AND LISTEN YOU BASTARDS

What this refers to is the IRISH - not pan-Celtic - practice of wearing their hair long at the front and short at the back, with the front part comprising of a matted lock of hair called a ‘glibbe’. And this practice is first referenced in 1596, in Spenser’s View of Ireland. So let’s just start with re-affirming the already-stated point: THIS IS NOT CELTIC. IT IS SPECIFICALLY MEDIEVAL IRISH. So if you’re claiming the ethnic right to wear dreads because you’re descended from Celts, unless you are referring to specifically people from Medieval Ireland, NO.

Now, allegedly, the Irish wore glibbes because the matting of the hair was so think [sic “thick”] they felt it basically functioned as a helmet. Quoth Spenser:

“their going to battle without Armour on their Bodies or Heads, but
trusting to the Thickness of their Glibbs, the which (they say) will
Sometimes bear off a good stroke”

Furthermore, the outraged Spenser alleged, the glibbes were “fit Marks as a Mantle is for a Thief”, because the Irish could simply push the glibbes back or pull them low over the eyes and so change their appearance totally in one second, thus allowing them to evade the law. This does, however, give us a pretty good idea as to style. This means if you want to wear traditional Irish glibbes, there’s the style to do it in. If you’re just wearing long dreadlocks like Bob Marley, NO.

And to be honest, the jury is still a little bit out on whether or not glibbes were specifically matted hair, or if Spenser the Racist Englishman was just trying to mock the Irish for having curly red hair that was therefore quite thick. It was probably matted, because he also goes on to lament English people appropriating the hairstyle.

But otherwise, all Celtic hair traditions revolved strongly around plaiting styles, and most likely that’s what the Romans’ 'snake-like hair’ comment refers to, which is the other bit of 'evidence’ people like to try and cite. So yeah - if you want to have matted hair because of Cultural Reasons of Being Celtic, then first of all, you’re going to need to be descended from a very specific Celtic grouping, and secondly, you’re going to need to grow an extremely specific style. Otherwise, NO. You are just doing cultural appropriation.”...

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Visitor comments are welcome.

Monday, September 26, 2016

The Changing Meanings Of "Hot Mess"

Edited by Azizi Powell

This post traces the changing meanings in the United States of the vernacular term "hot mess".

The content of this post is presented for etymological, cultural, and political purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

Thanks to all those who are quoted in this post.

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PANCOCOJAMS EDITOR'S COMMENT
This tweet motivated me to write this post on the term "hot mess":
John Nichols @NicholsUprising
"When primary message of a candidate's surrogates on the day before a debate is that they oppose fact checking, that candidate is a hot mess."
8:13 PM - 25 Sep 2016

Source: http://www.dailykos.com/story/2016/09/25/1574151/-Trump-camp-gets-touchy-touchy-about-all-the-pre-debate-coverage-of-Trump-s-compulsive-lying
-snip-
Prior to reading that tweet, I came across the term "hot mess" in this comment from a discussion thread about high school stomp & shake cheerleading which I included in this recent pancocojams post http://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2016/09/westover-high-school-fayetteville-north.html
Adrian Lewis
"This cheer is a disgrace, motions are sloppy, people are off, you sound a hot mess when you say it and i can barley understand you. (jussayin) #ProudCheerleader4YEARSSTRONG"
-snip-
Here's the reply to that comment:
Teya J
"@adrian Lewis it's really not. This cheer go hard, their moves aren't sloppy, and they are tight in arms and hip movements. Y u raining on somebody's parade?..."
-snip-
I don't know when I first heard the term "hot mess". I've used it informally and I've often heard it used informally as an insulting description of a person, thing, or situation. Since I'm interested in word origins, meanings, and how those meanings change, I've thought about the term "hot mess", but never looked it up online before today.

Initially, I thought that the word "hot" in "hot mess" was an intensifier which meant something like "really" (i.e. He is really a mess.). I found a comment that supports that meaning in my online search (Read #8 in the dcurbanmon's discussion thread below).

I still believe that a person, thing, or situation that is "a hot mess" is worse than a person, thing, or situation that is just described as "a mess". But after reading some of the comments given below, particularly some comments written by some bloggers in the [Washington] D.C. urban moms' forum and some definitions found on urbandictionary.com., I'm now leaning more towards the view that the word "hot" in "hot mess" means something that (or someone who) is like a "big mess on the stove, all boiled over"* or "a steaming pile of dog poop*". Note that "dog poop" is colloquially referred to as "dog mess".

*These quotes are from either dcurbanmom's or urbandictionary.com's defintions.

A newer (for me, and I think "newer" historically) definition of "hot mess" is:
"a person or thing that is a mess, as in being disorganized, confused, or untidy, yet remains attractive or appealing"
He’s a hot mess when he wakes up in the morning!
Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2016 "http://www.dictionary.com/browse/hot-mess
-snip-
For the record, that website indicated that "hot mess" is a noun. That website also included a section entitled "Examples from the Web for hot mess". However, that section only had one example and that example was listed under the sub-heading of "Contemporary Examples". Here's that example:
"President Obama could start mopping up this hot mess by causing some heads to roll in his Chicago campaign headquarters."

[source] An Obama Campaign Photo That Looks Like a Young Republican Rally
Mansfield Frazier
April 9, 2012; Daily Beast
-snip-
That example doesn’t appear to me to fit the definition that website gave for "hot mess". Consider that if, as the Daily Beast writer noted, President Obama started mopping up a hot mess by firing people in his Chicago campaign headquarters, did those actions result in him remaining attractive or appealing?

On the other hand, I believe that the definition of "hot mess" as 'something or someone that is a "popping hot", boiling over the stove mess, or something/someone that or who resembles a steaming pile of dog poop' does fit that sentence.

Furthermore, I believe that the definition of 'hot mess' as something that or someone who is "disorganized, confused, or untidy that remains attractive or appealing" is the result of people trying to graft one of the slang meanings of "hot" (i.e. sexy, physically attractive) unto the term "hot mess". But the word "hot" doesn't always have a vernacular meaning. And the word "hot" doesn't have to mean "physically attractive". Another slang meaning of "hot" is something that is stolen. That meaning may have come about because if someone touches that stolen item, he or she could end up being burned - arrested and jailed. Also, a very popular record is "hot" as it is "burning up" the music charts.

As my earlier comment implied, I believe that the term "hot mess" [in the United States} came from African American Vernacular English, and the definition of "hot mess" as something that (or someone who) is "disorganized, confused, or untidy that (who) remains attractive and appealing" is a relatively new meaning that White Americans came up with. Given a definition included on urbandictionary.com, a definition of "hot mess" that includes a positive element can be dated to at least 2011. Read that definition below. However, it appears that that type of definition gained in popularity in 2014 due to its use in several mainstream American television series.

*Read the Arrested Development section below and other information/comments in this post and let me know what you think about this subject.

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A HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF VERNACULAR DEFINITIONS FOR THE TERM "HOT MESS"
From http://time.com/46267/hot-mess-history-amy-schumer/ How the Meaning of ‘Hot Mess’ Has Changed Through History
Katy Steinmetz April 2, 2014
...."In the 1800s, someone mentioning a “hot mess” was likely talking about food, especially food being served to soldiers. “When the inspection was over,” writes Arthur Duke of Wellington in 1880, “the Major-General asked the men if they had any complaints, upon which about half the battalion fell out, to complain of being deprived of their hot mess.” In Latin, missus refers to a portion of food, and for centuries its descendant mess literally referred to a meal or the amount of food needed to make a meal (“We cut a mess ’a pork here.”) or even the amount of milk a cow gives at one milking (“Ol’ Bess, she gives a good mess.”).

By the early 1900s, Americans were using “hot mess” in a figurative sense, to describe spots of trouble or unpleasant, confusing situations. Kory Stamper, associate editor at Merriam-Webster, dug up one example from Pall Mall Magazine, in a 1907 fictional account of mounted police who appear to be encountering mountain people: “‘Now, ef I says the word, yo’ll be in a hot mess in about one minute!’” a character announces, “’Mounters’ ain’t ‘lowed in ‘yar!’” In a 1912 book about Andrew Jackson, the author describes the former president as a man who “was pretty apt to make a nice hot mess” of things. You know, with that temperament of his.

In the South Midland region of the U.S., encompassing parts of states like Georgia, Kentucky, Virginia, Tennessee and Alabama, “mess” is used to describe an “objectionable or foolish person.” Ben Zimmer, executive director at Vocabulary.com, points out that none other than Scarlett O’Hara called Melanie a “mealy-mouthed little mess” in the 1936 novel Gone With the Wind.

Zimmer also points out that “mess” and “hot” both have an abundance of slang meanings. Mess can describe an eccentric person, a large quantity or something both “praiseworthy” and “confusing.” Hot can be used to describe someone daring, flamboyant, uninhibited, wild, intense, lustful, sexy or drunk"...
-snip-
The author of this article writes that in the context of Amy Schumer’s Comedy Center series, the definition of "hot mess" would be something like “(n.), someone in obvious disarray or disorganization, esp. while remaining attractive in spite of this.” The author further writes that "Ads for the second season of comedienne Amy Schumer’s sketch show, Inside Amy Schumer, promised viewers one thing in bold capital letters in advance of the premiere Tuesday night: “HOT. MESS.”

For hip kids familiar with that slang term, it’s easy to see why promoters chose it to sum up the program—one in which the blonde-haired, blue-eyed Schumer spills sandwiches on herself and considers participating in “low budge” pornography.”....
-snip-
As a means of establishing a date for this particular definition of the term "hot mess", here's information about Amy Schumer's series: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inside_Amy_Schumer
"Inside Amy Schumer is an American sketch comedy television series created and hosted by its star, Amy Schumer. The series premiered on April 30, 2013, on Comedy Central.... Inside Amy Schumer completed its second season on June 3, 2014, and was renewed for a third season a week late"...

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"HOT TERM" ADDED TO OXFORD DICTIONARY IN 2014
From http://www.usmagazine.com/celebrity-news/news/oxford-dictionary-adds-words-side-boob-hot-mess-and-yolo-2014148 Oxford Dictionary Adds Words "Side Boob," "Hot Mess," and "YOLO", By Sierra Marquina, August 14, 2014

"hot mess (n.): a person or thing that is spectacularly unsuccessful or disordered"

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THE TELEVISION SERIES "ARRESTED DEVELOPMENT" AND THE TERM "HOT MESS"
From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arrested_Development_(season_1)
"The first season of the television comedy series Arrested Development aired between November 2, 2003 and June 6, 2004, on Fox in the United States."...

***
From http://english.stackexchange.com/questions/118204/hot-mess-meaning-and-etymology
mrmackerel, May 19 '14 “Hot mess” meaning and etymology
...."There was an episode of Arrested Development where the term "hot mess" was created with the currently popular US meaning. You even learn why the term was made. And around that time, this was not a popular term in the US. So, there is the possibility that episode is the root. Other TV shows have also been trying to pump new terms into pop culture. I think 30 Rock got a few wins there.

EDIT - from Arrested Development wiki: "The Bluth family frequently use the phrase 'hot mess' to describe each other in Season Four. [Although the term was defined and used in a previous season.]* It gained popular usage after the designer Christian Siriano used the term on the fourth season of Project Runway."
-snip-
*I'm not sure what season of Arrested Development the writer is referring to here.

****
From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arrested_Development_(season_4)
"The fourth season of the television comedy series Arrested Development premiered on Netflix on May 26, 2013 and consists of 15 episodes.[1][2] This season serves as a revival to the series after it was canceled by Fox in 2006.

The show's storyline centers on the Bluth family, a formerly wealthy, habitually dysfunctional family, and the show incorporates hand-held camera work, narration, archival photos, and historical footage."
-snip-
Note: The Bluth family is a White American family.

****
From http://mentalfloss.com/article/57200/11-great-moments-foreshadowing-arrested-development "11 Great Moments of Foreshadowing in 'Arrested Development'"
"#9

S4E10 – During this episode, Lucille and Buster discover a phrase that both find very useful in their arguments, and it becomes a running joke between the two: "A hot mess." They’re a little behind the times, though. Michael uses the phrase to describe Lucille 2 in the first episode of the season and Oscar yells it to Dr. Norman in the second.”

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From https://apps.npr.org/arrested-development/joke-159.html
"Season 4
1: Flight of the Phoenix
Michael refers to Lucille Austero as a hot mess when she falls down behind her door.

2: Borderline Personalities
Dr. Norman, we have a hot mess.

10: Queen B.
Buster and Lucille both enjoy using the term "hot mess."

14: Off The Hook
Just six weeks ago, Buster was a hot mess. Lucille: "So you can see why I need the testimony of someone who isn't a hot mess." Buster: "You're a hot mess!" Lucille: "You're a hot mess!"

Sources: Joke data compiled by Adam Cole / NPR. Episode metadata from The TVDB via a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 United States (CC BY 3.0 US) license"

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SELECTED COMMENTS ABOUT THE TERM "HOT MESS" FROM [WASHINGTON] DC URBAN MOMS DISCUSSION THREAD
Pancocojams Editor:
These are selected comments from that discussion thread. All of the commenters in that discussion have the screen name "Anonymous". I'm assuming that the number after the date refers to when that comment was posted on that date. I've assigned numbers to these comments, but they may not be in consecutive order.

From http://www.dcurbanmom.com/jforum/posts/list/111172.page Please define "Hot Mess"

1. 06/15/2010 17:33
Anonymous
"I am pretty hip, if I do say so myself
But this whole "hot mess" term has got me totally confused. How do you define it?"

**
2. 06/15/2010 17:59
Anonymous
"Exactly what it sounds like. A complete mess or disaster. This can mean looks or the way a person acts. Check out urban dictionary."
-snip-
Three definitions for "hot mess" from urban dictionary.com are included below.

**
3. 06/15/2010 18:02
Anonymous
"I assumed that "hot" meant they were attractive."

**
4. 06/15/2010 18:12
Anonymous
"A mess X 2. A big ole mess. A mess and a half. A mess that's "hot" because it's popping right now, all over the place."

**
5. 06/15/2010 18:27
Anonymous
"I heard this southern slang for the first time last year, and love the term! I always picture a big mess on the stove, all boiled over = hot mess. Then someone else told me it was more like a steaming turd = hot mess. I like my mental picture better."

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From http://www.dcurbanmom.com/jforum/posts/list/15/111172.page

6. 11/29/2012 10:56
Anonymous
"Being a hot mess is NOT attractive or a compliment. I hope nobody has actually taken that as a compliment because there's nothing good about being a hot mess."

**
7. 11/29/2012 11:07
[Quotes] :
Anonymous wrote:
I heard this southern slang for the first time last year, and love the term! I always picture a big mess on the stove, all boiled over = hot mess. Then someone else told me it was more like a steaming turd = hot mess. I like my mental picture better.

[Another Anonymous]
It's not southern slang.

[End of quotes]

Anonymous:
"People in the south have been using the term "mess", without the "hot" for generations.
Ex:"She is SUCH a MESS. Bless her heart." Usually said while shaking head. Is used with affection for small children and people you love who just don't have their stuff together. Can refer to appearance (as in a child with a dirty face) or behavior (chasing a sister through the house). Not sure what addition of hot means, although when I've heard it used is not a substitute for attractive.”

**
8. 11/29/2012 11:23
Anonymous
"The hot in hot mess has nothing to do with attractiveness. It is just for emphasis on the mess."

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From http://www.dcurbanmom.com/jforum/posts/list/30/111172.page

9. 01/19/2013 01:07
Anonymous
"Dear White People a hot mess has nothing to do with attractiveness. It is not a compliment."

**
10. 01/19/2013 20:57
[Quote] Anonymous wrote:
Dear White People a hot mess has nothing to do with attractiveness. It is not a compliment.

Anonymous
"Bizarre that you presume to know posters' race."

**
11. 01/20/2013 02:35
Quote: Anonymous wrote: [01/19/2013 22:43]
It's a phrase that has its roots in black culture, "you look a hot mess" and was not a compliment. It was later coopted by semi-trendy young women in a way to refer to themselves or each other in a self-deprecating fashion. At this point, it is overused to such a degree that nobody with any cool factor would use it anymore. Now it's used by suburban worker bee types who carpool to the city, get a spot out front, and cry "rock star parking, girlfriend!" and think starbucks is the best thing to ever happen to coffee.

It was slightly clever four years ago. Now it's hackneyed.

Next up: amirite, I know right?

Unrelated but likewise overused phrase: snowflake / special snowflake / precious snowflake

[end of quote]

Anonymous
"+100000. Once white people adopt a slang term, the cool factor bites the dust."

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From http://www.dcurbanmom.com/jforum/posts/list/45/111172.page

12. 11/26/2013 21:11
[Quotes]
Anonymous wrote:
Dear White People a hot mess has nothing to do with attractiveness. It is not a compliment.

Anonymous wrote:
Bizarre that you presume to know posters' race.
[end of quotes]

Anonymous
"NP, but black people know what this phrase means, as our families have used it for generations. If you are confused as to its meaning, its a near certainty that you are not black."

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THREE DEFINITIONS OF "HOT MESS" THAT WERE SUBMITTED TO URBANDICTIONARY.COM
Pancocojams Editor:
I've assigned numbers to these definitions for referencing purposes only.

Notice the synonyms for "hot mess" that are given with the definitions.

From http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=hot%20mess

1. Hot Messes
"Defined, "hot messes" refers to when a "person's appearance is in a state of total disarray while still maintaining an undeniable attractiveness" & allure.

....
Justin: "Did you see Molly this morning? We partied all night and she ended up passing out on the lawn."
Eric: "Yea, she came in this morning to find the rest of her clothes. She looked terrible, and awesome."
Justin: "Damn, hot messes' like that don't come around very often."


#hot messes #hot mess #hot messes' #hot #mess #messes #messes' #sexy
by jbalbs@kstate January 17, 2011

**
2. Hot Mess
"a derogatory term describing a situation, behavior, appearance, etc. that is disastrously bad. Think "faux pas" but times ten. Possible origin is literal (think, steaming dogpile).

"She got up on stage and tried to sing Beyonce's "Dangerously In Love" but her performance was a hot mess."

"Girl came in to school this morning looking a hot mess, her hair all jacked up and slouchin' in house shoes."

#messy #sloppy #disgusting #nasty #stank
by nikflorida February 25, 2007

**
hot mess
3. "A state of disarray so chaotic that it's dizzying to look at. A mess that is beyond the normal range of disarray. Visual clutter that draws attention to itself.

When the Project Runway contestant showed a garment made out of multicolored plush animals tied together with yarn, Heide Klum declared, "It's a hot mess!"
#messy #clutter #hoarding #chaos #junk
by JavaJaneOhio November 04, 2010

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Visitor comments are welcome.

Sunday, September 25, 2016

Five Videos About The National Museum of African American History and Culture

Edited by Azizi Powell

This post presents information about the National Museum of African American History and Culture which finally opened on September 24, 2016 in Washington, D.C. This post also showcases five videos that highlight some of the exhibits that are found in that museum.

Teh conent of this post is presented for historical, cultural, and inspirational purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

Thanks to all those enslaved African Americans, and other African Americans upon whose shoulders we now stand.

Thanks also to all those involved in the formation of this cultural museum, and all those who are quoted in this post. Thanks also to the publishers of these video on YouTube.

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INFORMATION ABOUT THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF AFRICAN AMERICAN HISTORY AND CULTURE
From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Museum_of_African_American_History_and_Culture
"The National Museum of African American History and Culture (NMAAHC) is a Smithsonian Institution museum established in December 2003. The museum's building, designed by David Adjaye, is on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.. Early efforts to establish a federally owned museum featuring African American history and culture can be traced to 1915, although the modern push for such an organization did not begin until the 1970s. After years of little success, a much more serious legislative push began in 1988 that led to authorization of the museum in 2003. A site was selected in 2006. The museum opened September 24, 2016, in a ceremony led by U.S. President Barack Obama.[1]

he Smithsonian Institution listed the number of items in the museum collection in 2012 as either more than 18,000 pieces[85] or more than 25,000 pieces.[86] CBS News reported in May 2015 that the collection size had grown to 33,000 objects.[87]
Items obtained by the museum initially were received, conserved, and stored at the Smithsonian Museum Support Center in Suitland, Maryland. Dozens of permanent curatorial staff and temporary contractors accessed the items, repaired them, and conserved them in a temperature- and humidity-controlled environment. Renée Anderson, the NMAAHC's head of collections, oversaw the effort. After artifacts were selected for display, graphics and labels for each item were manufactured. Display cases for each item were also purchased, and exhibiting mounts or specially designed cases handcrafted for particularly fragile, important, or unusually sized objects. Museum officials said all artifacts and displays will be moved into the new museum in the summer of 2016, along with the museum's 175 full-time employees.[68]
As of September 2016, notable items in the collection included:
Items owned by Harriet Tubman, including eating utensils, a hymnal, and a linen and silk shawl given to her by Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. Related items include a photographic portrait of Tubman (one of only a few known to exist), and three postcards with images of Tubman's 1913 funeral.[88]

The glass-topped casket originally used to display and bury the body of 14-year-old Emmett Till, the victim of racially motivated torture and murder in Mississippi. Till's death sparked the 1950s and '60s African American Civil Rights Movement.[89][90]

The dress which Rosa Parks was sewing the day she refused to give up her seat to a white man on a bus in Montgomery, Alabama, on December 1, 1955. Parks' action sparked the Montgomery Bus Boycott, and her action was one of the first incidents of civil disobedience in the 1950s and '60s African American Civil Rights Movement.[91]

A Selmer trumpet owned by jazz musician Louis Armstrong.[92]

A dress owned by actress and singer Pearl Bailey.[91]

....

A cape and jumpsuit owned by American soul singer James Brown.[92]
The "Mothership", a 1,200-pound (540 kg) aluminum and acrylic glass prop created by funk music singer George Clinton and used during performances of his bands Parliament and Funkadelic. Clinton's original "Mothership" was scrapped in 1983; this replica was crafted by Clinton in the mid-1990s and used for about five years.[93]

A collection of costumes designed by director and costume designer Geoffrey Holder for his 1976 musical, The Wiz (an adaptation of the L. Frank Baum novel, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz).[91] The costumes won the Tony Award for Best Costume Design, the play won the Tony Award for Best Musical, and Holder won the Tony Award for Best Direction of a Musical.

A cherry red Cadillac convertible owned by rock and roll singer Chuck Berry.[85]

An amplifier, speakers, and turntables used by Tony Crush a.k.a. DJ Tony Tone of the Cold Crush Brothers.[85]

A railroad car from Chattanooga, Tennessee, used by African American passengers during the Jim Crow era. Pete Claussen and Gulf & Ohio Railways (the company he founded in 1985) donated more than $222,000 to restore the car, which was built by the Pullman Company in 1922.[94]

A sign from a bus in Nashville, Tennessee, from the Jim Crow era which indicates which seating is for blacks only.[92]

A segregated drinking fountain from the Jim Crow era with the sign "colored" (indicating it was for use by blacks only).[92]

A badge from 1850, worn by an African American in Charleston, South Carolina, indicating the wearer was a slave.[92]

Feet and wrist manacles from the American Deep South used prior to 1860.[92]

Garments worn by African American slaves.[91]

An 1874 home from Poolesville, Maryland. The dwelling was constructed by the Jones family, who were freed slaves. The Joneses later founded an all-black community nearby.[92]

Boxing headgear worn by Cassius Clay (later to be known as Muhammad Ali)

..."
-snip-
Click that link for the complete list that is available on that page.

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From http://www.nbcwashington.com/news/local/Smithsonian-National-Museum-of-African-American-History-Opens-to-the-Public-Saturday-394453031.html

Bells rang out throughout Washington, D.C. Saturday as the Smithsonian's highly anticipated National Museum of African American History and Culture in Washington, D.C., opened after more than 100 years in the making.
Centuries of struggles and strife, decades of planning and pain, and years of hoping for a place that African-American history can call home culminated as President Barack Obama officially dedicated the museum Saturday morning.

The president opened the museum with the ringing of the historic Freedom Bell from the First Baptist Church in Williamsburg, Virginia, which was organized in 1776 by slaves.

Obama said the new national museum will help to tell a richer and fuller story of the country....

With thousands of items occupying 85,000 square feet of exhibition space, the new Smithsonian will chronicle the complex relationship between the United States and a people it once enslaved, and tell the story of those who worked to make the necessary changes to bring the country to where it is today...

The dedication featured speeches by Obama, civil rights leader U.S. Rep. John Lewis, former President George W. Bush and the museum's founding director, Lonnie Bunch. It also featured rousing musical tributes with a local flair, including Howard University's "Showtime" marching band and an a capella presentation by a choir from D.C.'s Duke Ellington School for the Arts.

The museum, the 19th and newest of the Smithsonians, opened to the public following the dedication ceremony....

A free three-day festival celebrating the talent and creativity of African-American artists is also taking place on the Washington Monument grounds. The Freedom Sounds festival features jazz, R&B, gospel and hip-hop artists throughout the weekend. The Roots, Living Colour and Public Enemy headlined the festival Saturday night, and a surprise special guest is slated to perform Sunday."...
-snip-
Click https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9ZMuu5fi4Ic for a two hour forty minutes plus video about the National Museum of African American History and Culture Grand Opening Ceremony.

Among the musical highlights of that ceremony is 11:14 - 18:49 of this video - songs by Benin, West Africa vocalist Angelique Kidjo

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SHOWCASE VIDEOS:
Example #1: A new home for African American treasures



CBS Sunday Morning, Published on Sep 11, 2016

After years of planning and construction, the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture opens its doors on September 24. The new building is home to a massive collection of artifacts showcasing four centuries of African-American life in the United States. Several celebrities, including music legend Quincy Jones, contributed personal treasures to the museum. He gave correspondent Lee Cowan a sneak preview of the new building and its historic collection.

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Example #2: Inside the National Museum of African American History and Culture



CBS This Morning Published on Sep 12, 2016

The Smithsonian's National Museum of African American History and Culture will open its doors to the public Sept. 24. "CBS This Morning" co-hosts Gayle King and Norah O'Donnell joined the museum's founding director, Lonnie Bunch, for a tour of what makes the 19th and newest Smithsonian museum

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Example #3: Inside the the National Museum of African American History and Culture



Geoff Bennett Published on Sep 16, 2016
In less than two weeks, the long-awaited Smithsonian Museum of African American History and Culture will open its doors to the public.

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Example #4: The National Museum of African American History opens in Washington, DC



CCTV America, Published on Sep 23, 2016

The National Museum of African American History will officially open its doors in Washington, D.C. on Sept. 24. African-Americans, once considered three-fifths of a person, will see their history displayed for visitors to come and understand Black America's centuries- long struggle for human dignity. CCTV America’s Jim Spellman reports.

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Example #5: Obama opens first African American history museum in US



Al Jazeera English Published on Sep 24, 2016

The first national US museum devoted exclusively to African American history and culture has opened in Washington DC.
President Barack Obama, his wife Michelle and former President George W. Bush were among the dignitaries in attendance.
Al Jazeera's Rosiland Jordan reports from Washington.

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