Thursday, May 26, 2016

Seven Videos Of Traditional Efik Dances (Nigeria)

Edited by Azizi Powell

This post presents information about the Efik ethnic population who are primarily located in southeastern Nigeria. This post also showcases seven YouTube videos of some traditional Efik dances. Selected comments from some of these featured videos are included in this post.

The content of this post is presented for cultural, entertainment, and aesthetic purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

Thanks to all those who are featured in these videos and all those who are quoted in this post. Thanks also to the publishers of these videos on YouTube.

"The Efik are an ethnic group located primarily in southeastern Nigeria, in the southern part of Cross River State. The Efik speak the Efik language which is a Benue–Congo language of the Cross River family. The Efik migrated down the Cross River from Arochukwu and founded numerous settlements in the Calabar and Creek Town area. They had sojourned from Nubia through to Ghana and then Arochukwu in present-day South East Nigeria. After staying there harmoniously as guests for about 400 years (11th - 15th century), they left after a disagreement with the Aros. The bulk of them left to Uruan in present-day Akwa Ibom State, some to Eniong and surrounding areas. They stayed in Uruan for about a hundred or so years and then moved to Ikpa Ene and Ndodihi briefly before crossing over to their final destination in Creek Town (Esit Edik / Obio Oko). Creek Town and its environs are often commonly referred to as Calabar, and its people as Calabar people, after the European name Calabar Kingdom given to the state [in present-day Cross River State. Calabar is not to be confused with the Kalabari Kingdom in Rivers State which is an Ijaw state to its west. Cross River State with Akwa Ibom State was formerly one of the original twelve states of Nigeria known as the Southeastern State.

The Efik people also occupy southwestern Cameroon including Bakassi. This area, a trust territory from German Cameroon, was administered as a part of the Eastern Region of Nigeria until it achieved autonomy in 1954, thus separating the Efik people politically. This separation was further extended when as a result of a 1961 plebiscite the area voted to join the Republic of Cameroon. Most of the area was immediately transferred, but it wasn't until August 2006 that Nigeria handed over the Bakassi peninsula to Cameroon...

Although their economy was originally based on fishing, the area quickly developed into a major trading centre and remained so well into the early 1900s. Incoming European goods were traded for slaves, palm oil and other palm products. The Efik kings collected a trading tax called comey from docking ships until the British replaced it with 'comey subsidies'.[2]

The Efik were the middle men between the white traders on the coast and the inland tribes of the Cross River and Calabar district. Christian missions were at work among the Efiks beginning in the middle of the 19th century. Even by 1900, many of the native peoples were well educated in European ideologies and culture, professed Christianity and dressed in European fashion.

A powerful bond of union among the Efik, and one that gives them considerable influence over other tribes, is the secret society known as the Ekpe, the inventor of the Nsibidi, an ancient African Writing....

The Efik people speak the Efik language, which is a Benue–Congo language of the Cross River family.[4][5][6]"

From Who Are the Efiks
"The Efiks inhabit the coastal area of South Eastern Nigeria and are very well known nationally and internationally partly because of the prominence of Calabar in Nigerian history and also due to their rich cultural heritage. Among the broad culture of the Efiks are “Ekombi”, the Efik classical music, “Ukwa”, the only fencing match in sub-Saharan Africa, “Mbuk”, a collection of Efik folklore, and “Ekpe”. Abang dance is performed for entertainment and at festive occasions. The dance can be simple as well as elaborate with many interpretations behind it. The most famous cuisine “Edikangikong” is renowned as next to none in Nigeria.

There are a host of other traditional dance forms. “Nkuho”, where a young female, who is about to be betrothed in marriage, is confined, taught and molded into womanhood. Here she learns moral values of the community and how to appreciate herself. While in confinement, she is not allowed to do any chores. Instead, she eats as much as she wants; is pampered and taught the Ekombi dance in preparation for the day that she comes out of the confinement. She is not allowed any male visitors except her suitor. The length of time in the confinement has changed over the years."

Source: Akak, Okon E., “Efiks of old Calabar (1982), Vol III, Calabar; Akak & Sons Publisher.
These examples are presented in chronological order based on their publishing date on YouTube with the oldest dated video given first.

Example #1: Afô ke-edi (Ibibio luv song)

A krachouse Company Uploaded on Oct 31, 2006
Ibibio love song (kind of blues and a lil bit rnb)
The lyrics are translated from Efick to English in the video's sub-titles.
Selected comments from this video's discussion thread:
A M A K U Fruitarian, 2009
"Yeah this is definitely Efik. From what I've been told, xto is Oron but here in this video he's singing in Efik and got the whole Efik costume, Afia awan and everything. Efik and Ibibio dance and music styles are VERY different. Couldn't confuse them at all. There's nothing wrong with recognizing the differences. It would be ignorant not to. Both traditions are rich and distinct in their own way.

vixxy02, 2008
"...The song is EFIK, and the dance is an EFIK dance called EKOMBI! The tittle is misleading"

ukonoca, 2011
"Brings back so many pleasant memories. On the difference between Efik and Ibibio, there is none. According to E.N. Amaku, the Efiks are Ibibio. The indigenous dialect of mainland Calabar is Ejagham (Ekoi). Even Hope Waddell land (Leopardstown) is Ekoi. Efik language and the Efiks are Uruan. As you can see from the google maps Uruan and Duke Town, Creek Town etc are on opposite banks of Akwa Akpa Uruan (Great Uruan River - Cross River Estuary). Somehow the Uruan dialect(Efik) dominated the area."

Asari Ekpes, 2012

Shatu101, 2012
"I love the footwork. Looks like they are floating. soooo beautiful"

Mmaedem, 2016
"The title is very misleading. The music, dance, clothing, masquerade and everything in his video is pure Efik and not Ibibio"

Example #2: Efik dance 1.mp4

owoito, Uploaded on Nov 11, 2011
Here's a comment from this video's discussion thread:
bassey bassey, 2016
"A typical Efik cultural heritage, absolutely awesome!"

Example #3: Efik Dance Nigeria

fulani100, Published on Oct 28, 2012

A dance that the Efiks do during the traditional wedding of one of theirs
Selected comments from this video's discussion thread
EagerBeaver2218, 2013
"nteje dancing is always graceful, but why do you guys loooove to fatten up your maidens before the wedding?? Slender beautiful girls enter the fattening rooms and emerge humungous!!"

Mmaedem, 2015
"The seclusion that we call Nkuho is not really about being fattened up. It's a rite of passage into womanhood. They don't emerge humongous, those who are prone to gaining weight do gain a lot of weight when they are in the seclusion because they are literally not allowed to do anything except learn how to be an Efik woman and many of the maidens loose the weight when they go back to their normal life. If you look at other pictures of Efik maidens you would see that they are not all humongous as you rudely put it."

Su Fang, 2015
"What's up with the guy dropping dollar bills!!!! Is he wife shopping? How sad..."

Erezi Ogbimi, 2016
"+Su Fang it's part of Nigerian culture"
Click for a pancocojams post that explains the Nigerian (and some other African nation's custom) of spraying cash money on dancers and other performers y as indications of blessing and approval. This custom is also found among people in some other African nations. It seems to me that spraying money is particularly a custom among some West Africans. And I think that there's little doubt that this custom is the source of some African Americans' practice of pinning dollars on the dress top or shirt of people who are celebrating their birthday.

Example #4: Ekombi Dance - Efik

Eyen Efik Published on Jul 19, 2013

Ekombi is a traditional dance amongst the Efik people in Calabar, Cross River State - Nigeria.The movements are derived from the motions of the ocean. It is a graceful dance with incredible footwork, it's a dance of peace and happiness. Ekombi shows a woman's beauty and femininity, the dance is also a good platform to choose a partner for marriage.

Selected comments from this video's discussion thread:
pwetty4r4, 2015
"what are those golden decorations in her hair called????"

Eyen Efik, 2015
"+pwetty4r4 there are called "brass combs." The Efik women adorn their hair with brass combs to depict wealth and royalty"

Example #5: Efik music: Yak Ntobo Fi Eftop by Offiong Peter Effiom

Eyen Efik Published on Jul 19, 2013

Artist: Offiong Peter Effiom
Title: Yak Ntobo Fi Eftop
Music Genre: Highlife

Example #6: Nnabo 1 - Efik Masquerade

Eyen Efik, Published on Jul 21, 2013

Nnabo is one of several Efik masquerades in Calabar, Cross River State - Nigeria. Nnabo was used by our fore-fathers to fight war against their enemies.

Example #7: Nnabo 3 - Efik Masquerade

Eyen Efik, Published on Jul 3, 2014

Masquerades are one of the oldest traditional and cultural events amongst the Efik of Cross River State, Nigeria. Masquerades are deeply rooted in the traditional religion and are accompanied with chants, songs, and dances.

Okut Ama Edi Ukut Iso
Song titles:
Ikot Abasi
Edidem Ekpo Okon
Eyen Abasi

More videos of Nnabo masquerade:

Thanks for visiting pancocojams.

Visitor comments are welcome.

Tuesday, May 24, 2016

President Obama's "Please Proceed, Governor" Comment & How Similar Comments Are Used On Political Blogs

Edited by Azizi Powell

President Barack Obama's "Please proceed, Governor" comment to former Massachusetts Governor and then Republican presidential nominee during in their second national presidential televised debate on October 17, 2012 is one of my favorite debate watching moments.

In case you've forgotten that priceless moment and the exchange it was part of, here's what happened:
From My favorite moment of 2012: 'Please proceed, governor' By kos
2012/11/30 [with photographs]
"...President Barack Obama has just finished answering a question about Benghazi:
And the suggestion that anybody in my team, whether the Secretary of State, our U.N. Ambassador, anybody on my team would play politics or mislead when we've lost four of our own, governor, is offensive. That's not what we do. That's not what I do as president, that's not what I do as Commander in Chief.

Candy Crowley kicks it back to Mitt Romney for a rebuttal "quickly."

ROMNEY: I -- I think interesting the president just said something which -- which is that on the day after the attack he went into the Rose Garden and said that this was an act of terror.
At this point, Romney turns to look at Obama. Obama nods and says, barely audibly since his mic is resting on his knee:

OBAMA: That's what I said.

Romney is still looking at Obama, and points to him accusingly.

The camera closes in on Romney's face as he first pauses for dramatic effect, then raises his eyebrows in mock, condescending, dickish disbelief, as though he's challenging his teenage sons.

Romney thinks he's scoring big points, and presses what he thinks is his advantage:
It was not a spontaneous demonstration, is that what you're saying?

At this point, Obama interrupts Romney.

OBAMA: Please proceed. Please proceed governor.

Obama nods as he says this, further encouraging Romney to continue this line of attack, and just before the camera cuts away from his face and back to Romney, the beginnings of a smile flicker on Obama's face:
Obama knows Romney is walking into a trap. His eyes lock on Romney's, challenging him to, yes, proceed. Romney, still looking at Obama, realizes that something is up and becomes notably suspicious. There's a brief pause as his confidence drains away, then Romney stumbles over the word "I" three times before he finally gets off his next line:

ROMNEY: I want to make sure we get that for the record because it took the president 14 days before he called the attack in Benghazi an act of terror.

Crowley has two competing thoughts here—between "he did in fact, sir, call it an act of terror," and "so let me [move on to the next topic]." It's a confusing mumbly mishmash, but she's engaged and unexpectedly buttressing the president's point. So Obama moves in for the kill:
OBAMA: Can you say that a little louder, Candy?

The crowd starts laughing, Romney is the butt of the joke.

CROWLEY: He -- he did call it an act of terror.

In that moment, the GOP fantasy that Benghazi would bring down Obama evaporated amidst mocking crowd laughter and applause, and Obama had decisively won the second (very critical) debate.

In fact, Romney was so thoroughly defeated on this issue, that he refused to use it as an attack line during the third debate, supposedly focused on foreign policy."
Here's a video of that interaction:
Romney's moment of panic

Claudeknee, Published on Oct 17, 2012

Check out the brief flash of panic that travels across his face when he realizes that his clever little plan has just backfired and made him look the fool. Choice!!

[to politely tell someone] to proceed

Three pertinent standard definitions for "proceed"
"1. To go forward or onward, especially after an interruption; continue: proceeded to his destination; paused to clear her throat, then proceeded.
2. To begin to carry on an action or a process: looked surprised, then proceeded to roar with laughter.
3. To move on in an orderly manner: Business proceeded as usual"

It appears that President Obama was the first person to publicly use what I am referring to as the vernacular meaning of the phrase "Please proceed".

Here are two reader submitted definitions for "please proceed, governor" from
Please proceed, Governor

When somebody thinks they're about to outsmart you and you encourage them to keep going, knowing you have a fact ready to completely humiliate them.

Mitt Romney: "You said in the Rose Garden the day after the attack, it was an act of terror... is that what you're saying?
Barack Obama: "Please proceed, Governor"
Romney humiliated by debate moderator

#go on #really #obama #romney #truthiness
by jcb82 October 19, 2012

"Please proceed governor

A phrase used when a person you're arguing against is about to say something really stupid and realizes it, but you want them to continue so that you can win the argument."....
by President of Vice January 09, 2014
[This comment includes another abbreviated transcript of that debate exchange.]

April 2016
""Please proceed, Governor" is the single best line in 21st century debate history thus far."

"Like handing him a rope so he could hang himself."

"Can you give me some context on this? I don't remember that line or why it was so great."

"Romney was talking about how Obama didn't say benghazi was a terrorist attack. Romney looks at Obama and Obama responds, please proceed Governor."

"It's become a side note but Obama's comments that started the whole exchange are criminally underrated. He perfectly exhibited anger and emotion at the beginning bringing up that the ambassador killed was someone he appointed and he was there to greet his casket and grieve with his family."

"It was semantics, arguing that Obama didn't call Benghazi "a terrorist act." He did use the phrase "an act of terror." After Obama said, "Please proceed, governor" graciously allowing Romney to dig himself into the hole further, Obama followed up with "Why yes I DID call it an act of terror - check the transcripts."
The moderator of the debate confirmed that the phrase "act of terror" was in Obama's speech from the Rose Garden on the attacks.

It made Romney lose his composure, and he was off beat for the remainder of the debate. And it was all everyone could talk about for days.

Since then, "Please proceed Governor" is a phrase used to indicate that your opponent is wrong, and you have evidence to refute their argument, but you'll permit them to complete their (wrong) argument without interruption until your turn to rebut.*
*Italics were added by me to highlight this sentence.

"In that case, he wasn't yet wrong. He hadn't said Obama never said that. His tone said it and he was implying it, but he hadn't said it. What Obama did was basically apply the Socratic Method. 'I know you're wrong but I don't have the ammo to prove it yet. Please keep talking and hang yourself.'"

"The reason it's remembered so fondly is it knocked Romney for six and left him stammering on national television. Kind of the equivalent of Christie did to Rubio before NH this year."*
*Christie - New Jersey Governor Chris Christie and then a candidate for the 2014 Republican Presidential nomination

Rubio - Florida Senator Marco Rubio and then a candidate for 2014 Republican Presidential nomination

NH = refers to the New Hampshire Republican televised debate Feb 9, 2016

Here's a comment in about that debate's winners and losers from
[One of the] Winner[s] - "Chris Christie: He sure got his voice heard going after Rubio — which we'll recap below (see: LOSERS). The question, though, is did Christie help himself, or just hurt Rubio?"...

A number of commenters who posted to the discussion thread of the embedded video above also described President Obama's saying "Please proceed. Please proceed, governor" to setting a verbal trap. Here are two of those comments:
"Unsaid by Obama: "I set a trap and you sprung it gloriously!""

"Another person described President Obama's smile as being like in chess when you set the trap. "It's that wonderful moment when you have constructed some situation where you know that if your opponent will only fail to see through your plan and take the bait, it will lead to a series of inescapable moves that will give you both his rooks, his bishops, and his queen."

Editor's Note:
Based on my admittedly limited online research, it appears that the vernacular form of the phrase "please proceed" is usually directed toward an identified person or group - For example, "Please proceed, Governor" or "Please proceed, Republicans".

All of the examples of "please proceed, ___" that I'm featuring in this post are from political discussions. That's mostly because I found it difficult to search for non-political uses online, since the standard meaning of "please proceed" is still currently used. To complicate matters, the standard meaning of "please proceed" is also still used on political blogs, albeit sometimes sarcastically. For example, "Please Proceed...with the hand-wringing - a primary model predicts Trump beating Hillary and Bernie"
By maddrailin, 2016/02/26·

That said, here's a few of the political examples of the vernacular use of "please proceed, __" that I've found. The oldest dated examples are given first and the examples are numbered for referencing purposes only:

1. From 3/08/2013, Posted by Hal
...."if Obamacare is the most certain thing on Earth to fail, why are we not hearing this, or some facsimile of this [debate “please proceed, governor” moment]from Republicans and TEApublicans? Why not?...

If what they all say is true, Obamacare should be the presidency handed to the Republicans on a silver platter. It should ruin Democratic chances at holding the White House because it will kill jobs, people and the insurance industry.

But no.

Instead of sitting back smugly with a "please proceed, Mr. President" the do-nothing Republicans in congress are now threatening to shut down the government so Obamacare won't be funded when it comes time to open up the exchanges on October 1st. Not all of them, mind you, just the crazies who don't know or don't care what the last government shutdown did to their party at the polls.

And the reason is, you know, is that these people all know that after all the lies and obfuscation settles and Obamacare becomes America's newest love affair after Social Security and Medicare, this will seal the fate of Republicanism for a generation...

Please proceed, Republicans."

2. From "Please proceed, GOP" by Jed Lewison, 2013/05/06
...."Rep. Jason Chaffetz (R-Utah) said Monday that former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton put politics above security during the Sept. 11 attack last year on the U.S. post in Benghazi, Libya — this as lawmakers gear up for another hearing on Wednesday.
I think it was political rather than security. But what boggles my mind is 4½ months after the fact, Secretary Clinton still had the gall to come here and perpetuate things that we know is common knowledge are simply not true,” said Chaffetz, a member of the House Oversight and Government Reform Committee, on Fox News.

Ouch! She had the gall to be political, unlike Republicans such as Chaffetz who have been single-mindedly focused on getting to the bottom of what really happened in Benghazi and why it proves Democrats hate America and want to cover up the actions of the terrorists with whom they obviously sympathize. Yeah, it's a dumb attack—just ask Osama bin Laden what he thinks about it. And part of what makes it so dumb is that it's not just transparently political, it's also patently ineffective.

The crime, allegedly, is that the administration didn't immediately denounce the attacks as acts of terrorism. You know, just like Mitt Romney famously did in his second debate with President Barack Obama. Setting aside for a moment the fact that these guys are way too obsessed with what amounts to a semantic exercise, the fact was that President Obama did call it a terrorist act.

I mean, there's a reason Obama said "please proceed" when Romney began his ill-considered attack, and it wasn't that he was afraid of what Romney was going to say. As we all now know, Romney face-planted. Republicans thought Benghazi was Christmas in September, but as we saw on election day, they were wrong.

Of course, the fact that they nonetheless believe Benghazi will be the end of Hillary Clinton shows that they still haven't figured out why Obama encouraged Romney to proceed. And when four years from now it turns out that Benghazi didn't deliver 2016 to the GOP on a silver platter, odds are history will repeat itself. Instead of coming to grips with the fact that they've been on a misguided political witch hunt all along, they'll convince themselves that they've retroactively stumbled on the key to victory in 2020."

3. From
Daily Kos
September 23, 2013 ·
Please proceed, tea partiers.

Photo of Aircraft carrier
Photo caption
"No hurry guys. We’ll just hang out here for a little while. Nothing says “we support the troops” like giving them an I. O. U.”
DailyKos Com [hyperlink to
Quote from that diary:
...."Go on, Cruz. Go on, tea partiers. Go give your we-love-the-troops speeches to the troops, and explain to them why they're just gonna have to work without pay for a while because of your deep principles on how Obama is mean and you don't like him. That ought to be a real hoot."
Cruz - Texas Senator Ted Cruz and later a candidate for the 2014 Republican Presidential nomination

tee-partiers- term for a segment of Republican party

4. Republicans Would Rather Run Against Bernie Than Hillary | Please, Proceed...
submitted, March 2016 by zheega [March 2016]

ChessmasterrexNorth America
"The GOP hasn't a clue what they're dealing with..

"....because he's an awesome guy and would make a better president than Hillary or Trump. d(^ _^ )d"
Given those comments, my interpretation of this post title is that it was written by a supporter of Senator Bernie Sanders who believes that the Republican party thinks it would be better to run against Senator Sanders for President, but they are mistaken because the original poster and the commenters] believe that Sanders is a stronger candidate than Hillary of Donald Trump (businessman and current leading Republican Presidential nominee. The original poster and commenters therefore want their opponents (the Republican party) to please proceed with this strategy as they believe that the Democratics will win in the end..

5. From
Daily Kos
March 31, 2015 ·
Please proceed, Republicans.
"GOP presidential candidates get behind Indiana's license-to-discriminate law"

By Laura Clawson
Hyperlink to this diary-

6. From "The Power of Framing: The Debate Over Qualifications is Bernie Sanders' Gift to Hillary Clinton" by Spandan Chakrabarti April 7, 2016
Comments [April 2016]
Democratinny reply to Nancy the Artist
"I want to see Hillary mop the floor with Bernie during the NY debate. I have developed a very deep dislike of him and I did give him a chance in the beginning. He is nothing but an opportunist."

Nancy the Artist reply to Democratinny
"It seems she has the opportunity to give him enough rope to hang himself. This is also President Obama's skill set. It looks like she has already begun the process by elevating herself above his level of behavior."

Democratinny reply to Nancy the Artist
"Exactly. She will be savvy and classy, while Sanders will be sounding like an adolescent.
Maike Hudson Nancy the Artist • 2 months ago
Please proceed, Senator."
Hillary - former United States Secretary Of State [in President Obama's administration], former New York Senator (Democrat), and current candidate for 2014 Democratic Presidential nomination

Bernie - current Vermont Senator (formerly an Independent and now a Democrat), and current candidate for 2014 Democratic Presidential nomination

7. From Diary Comments
Fonsia May 23 [2016]· 04:49:33 PM
...."Fun fact: Trump said the other day that he wasn’t going to waste time on all that stupid organizing stuff. He said that Obama won by being a compelling personality and having big rallies, so that’s what Trump’s going to do.


Fonsia May 23 [2016]· 05:32:57 PM
"I know a lot of us here volunteered for Obama in ‘08. That was a well-oiled machine, organized to a fare-the-well.

Please proceed, Donald."

8. From
"On a talk show, Donald Trump said he would debate Bernie Sanders if Bernie Sanders paid him. Sanders JUMPED on this immediately, appearing desperate for a debate . . . any debate."...

Turns out Trump was joking and that just makes Bernie Sanders look like a fool....

dss May 26 [2016]· 11:23:11 AM
"Seemed like calling his bluff — in a “please proceed governor” kind of way."
Which candidate does "his bluff" refer to in this sentence? It probably depends on whether you are a supporter of Donald Trump or Bernie Sanders.

But another dailykos diary on the same subject* includes a tweet from CNN news that reads
"“Michael Briggs, a Sanders spokesman, said that [Jimmy] Kimmel [star of the nationally televised Jimmy Kimmel Live show ] allowed the Sanders campaign to submit a question to Trump to be asked during the taping -- so they asked about a potential debate.”.

The implication of that diary was that Sanders in this encounter because it shows that he is desperate for media attention. As a commenter khyber900 put in on May 26 · 01:53:46 PM ..."Bernie tried a gambit and got played by Trump."...

*"The strange saga of the Sanders-Trump debate that was, then wasn't" By kos; 2016/05/26 · 12:05

A NON-POLITICAL EXAMPLE (although this example is quoted from Facebook, it was posted in the discussion thread for the YouTube video of that second 2012 national Presidential debate when President Obama said "Please proceed, governor."

LeroyMorte, 2012
"Loved this comment by someone named Rebecca Barnes on FB: " I think that "Please proceed, Governor" should be the new catchphrase for whenever anyone makes a fool of oneself. You know, you go to sit down, miss the chair, fall on your ass -- kind of thing. From now on the correct response (by onlookers) to such embarrassing goofs should be, "Please proceed, Governor"."

I second it, lets turn it into a meme!"
And I guess they proceeded to do so - the 21st century standard way - online.


The content of this post is presented for cultural, etymological, and political purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

Thanks to President Obama for his semantic skills and more. Thank all of those who are quoted in this post and thanks to the publisher of the video that is embedded in this post.

Thanks for visiting pancocojams.

Visitor comments are welcome.

Songs About Saint Sarah (Sara-la-Kali, Sara the Black), The Romani Patron Saint

Edited by Azizi Powell

This post presents information about Saint Sarah (Sara-la-Kali, Sara The Black). Seven YouTube videos about Saint Sarah are also showcased in this post along with selected comments from some of these examples' YouTube discussion threads.

The Addendum to this post provides information about the Indian Goddess Kali. I've included this information in this post not because I accept the belief that the Romani Saint known as Sara-la-Kali is derived from the Indian Goddess Kali, but because that Goddess is mentioned in the information that this post quotes.
The content of this post is presented for cultural, religious, and aesthetic purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

Thanks to all those who are quoted in this post and all those who are featured in these videos. Additional thanks to the publishers of these videos on YouTube.
I learned about Saint Sarah (Sara-la-Kali, Sara the Black), from the May 24, 2016 dailykos post that was published by Andy T. (The link is below). Thanks for sharing information about Saint Sarah!

From Myths of Black Sarah, Sarah-la-Kali, an "Icon of Love and Welcome"
By AndyT, 2016/05/24
..."Picture Iron Age Celtic Gaul (France) under Roman rule in around 40 A.D. Southeastern Gaul was remote and rural in the Roman empire; they had principally conquered it around 121 B.C. because they wanted safe, unhindered routes to the Iberian peninsula (Southern Spain)

The inhabitants were likely practicing a polytheistic faith that was an amalgam of Celtic Iron Age beliefs and Roman belief.

One legend has it that in the years after the death of the Christ, in the earliest years of Christianity, the two (or three in some versions of the story) Marys, Mary Salome and Mary Jacobi/Cleopas, who had stood at the foot of the cross and had visited the tomb only to see the rock rolled back from the entrance had fled persecution in Israel. Destitute but for their faith, they crossed the Mediterranean in rickety boat without even a sail bound for Gaul's southern shores.

In Gaul was a Egyptian woman, black of skin and beautiful to see. According to legend she was a prophetess and leader of the local Gallic tribe. And this is where the legend begins:
"One of our people who had the first epiphany was Sara-la-Kali. She came from a noble line and ruled her kin on the bank of the Rhone. Thanks to this mysterious revelation, she knew many secrets. By the River Rhone tribes worked with metals and then traded with them. Roma at that time had polytheistic beliefs (they followed several deities) and once a year they took part in a procession with a statue of Ischtari (Astarte) on their shoulders. They walked into the sea with it hoping for benediction. One day Sara-la-Kali had a vision. She saw three holy women calling desperately for help. So Sarah didn't hesitate and went to meet them in a small boat. But the sea was so tempestuous that Sarah almost lost her own life. Finally, in desperation, not knowing which direction was best, she threw her dress into the waves. And lo and behold, by some miracle, it served as a raft and helped her to convey the three Marys to shore. The holy women baptized Sara as a reward and recommended the gospel to her."
Franze de Ville, in the book "Traditions of the Roma in Belgium” quoted here.

...There are other stories of the woman the Roma call Saint Sarah; some in which she was a servant of the Marys (this is the version the Catholic church accepts — note she is NOT a Catholic saint), others in which she travelled Gaul giving alms to the needy. I chose the story in which she was the heroine.

Her day of celebration and pilgrimage is today, May 24th. The Romani travel to the French village of Les Saintes-Maries-de-la Mer to honor their Saint Sarah, Black Sarah, Sara-la-Kali."

"Saint Sarah, also known as Sara-la-Kali ("Sara the Black", Romani: Sara e Kali), is the patron saint of the Romani people. The center of her veneration is Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer, a place of pilgrimage for Roma in the Camargue, in southern France. Legend identifies her as the servant of one of the Three Marys, with whom she is supposed to have arrived in the Camargue.[1]...

The day of the pilgrimage honouring Sarah is May 24; her statue is carried down to the sea on this day to re-enact her arrival in France.

Some authors have drawn parallels between the ceremonies of the pilgrimage and the worship of the Hindu goddess Kali, subsequently identifying the two.[5] Ronald Lee (2001) states:
If we compare the ceremonies with those performed in France at the shrine of Sainte Sara (called Sara e Kali in Romani), we become aware that the worship of Kali/Durga/Sara has been transferred to a Christian figure... in France, to a non-existent "sainte" called Sara, who is actually part of the Kali/Durga/Sara worship among certain groups in India.[6]"

These examples are presented in chronological order based on their publishing date on YouTube with the oldest video given first.

Example #1: Sainte Sarah

David Jousselin Uploaded on Sep 17, 2011

Roms, Manouches, Tsiganes et Gitans arrivent des quatre coins d'Europe
pour vénérer leur Sainte, Sara la Noire.
Le pèlerinage est aussi l'occasion de retrouvailles et la plupart des enfants sont baptisés dans l'église des Saintes Marie de la Mer.

Je me suis promené parmi eux, les regardant, les écoutant et les admirant.
Soudain, pendant quelques instant, je me suis sentis moi même Gitan.
Quelqu'un d'un voyage...

«Tu comprendras Gadgo
La vie que j'ai choisie.
Mes quatre beaux enfants
Et ma femme chérie
Te diront mon histoire»

Google translated from French to English"
Roma, Manush, Gypsies and Gypsies come from all over Europe
to venerate their Saint, Sara the Black.
The pilgrimage is also an occasion of reunion and most children are baptized in the Church of Saint Marie de la Mer.

I walked among them, watching, listening to and admiring.
Suddenly, for some time, I felt myself Gypsy.
Someone traveling ...

"You understand Gadgo
The life I've chosen.
My four beautiful children
And my darling wife
Will tell you my story "


Alma Cigana Published on May 24, 2012

Example #3: Sara la Kali

xbatlles, Published on Nov 19, 2012

Del CD "Cultures viatgeres" de Dani Caracola & la Banda de Ida y Vuelta.
Produït, gravat, mesclat i masteritzat a BITSTUDI de Barcelona per Xavier Batllés l'any 2012.
Selected comments from this sound file's discussion thread:
"All the comments here are from Tamils, but it would be interesting to also have comments from Romani people."

Tamil Chinthanaiyalar Peravai
"Kali is one of the Manifestations of Mariamman of Tamils.

Kali is one of the seven deities called Sapta Kannies of Tamil Nadu.

Kindly watch "The Great Mariamman Mystery Solved" video in my channel!"

Damien Machado
"Sara la Kali is Tamil Godes. Tamil is a Nation who lives in Southern India. Kali is a Black Godes of Tamil People.

Tamil Chinthanaiyalar Peravai
"Sara la Kali means Sarasuvati - Latchumi - Kali. These are taken as most important stages of Sapta Kannies.

Sarasuvati - Sara
Latchumi - La
Kali - Kali."

Example #4: Oração a Santa Sara kali - cigana Isabelita

portalcigano, Published on Mar 12, 2013

Oração em Homenagem a Santa Sara Kali - Extraída do Livro " Os Clãs ciganos de Luz do Astral de Marcelo e Solange Ruiz" -
Música Alexandre Flores.
Google Translate from Portuguese to English:
Prayer in tribute to Saint Sarah - Extracted from the book "The Clans Astral Light of Roma and Solange Marcelo Ruiz" -
Selected comments from this sound file's discussion thread (translated from Portuguese to English by Google Translate)
Sidneia Quadros
"Agradeço a minha Sta Sara minha protetora.Me proteja e me livre do perigo ande sempre ao meu lado mãe bondosa . Opctha"

I thank my Sta Sara my protetora.Me protect and deliver me from danger always walk beside me good mother. Opctha

Eli santos
"Santa Sara olha para minha mãe Elvira tenha misericórdia dela curai das dores desses sofrimento que ela passa nesse momento amém obrigado Santa Sara por me ouvir e conceder essa graça que peço amém"

Santa Sara looks at my mother Elvira has her mercy heal the pain of those suffering it passes this time Amen thank Santa Sara for me to hear and grant this grace I ask Amen

Luzinete Borgoni
"amem santa Sara Kali me ajude a melhorar minha saude que estou muito mal com muito dor"

love Santa Sara Kali help me improve my health I'm very bad with a lot of pain

Layane Braga
"Santa Sara, venho lhe pedir que a senhora me de a benção de ser mae , a benção de ter meu filho, é tudo que eu mais quero nessa vida santa sara. Minha família, me conceda o desejo de ser mae santa sara. Já tentei duas vzs e nada. É tudo que eu mais quero nessa vida Santa Sara"

Santa Sara, I come to ask that lady to me the blessing of being mother, the blessing of having my son, that's all I want most in this holy life heals. My family, grant me the desire to be holy mother sara. I've tried two VZS and nothing. It's all I want most in this life Santa Sara

Quantum Of Solace
"Sempre que faço essa oração, me sinto em paz comigo mesmo, sara sempre me ajudando e me mostrando meu caminho e cuidando de mim, ela sempre me mostra os perigos e me tira antes do mal me atingir, sara es muito bondosa, Amém e Obrigado Sara por tudo e sempre irei fazer a minha parte pra não te desapontar e nada nem ninguém ira me afastar de você."

Whenever I make this prayer, I feel at peace with myself, Sara always helping me and showing me my way and taking care of me, she always shows me the dangers and take me before barely hit me, sara very kind es, Amen and Thank Sara for everything and I will always do my part to not disappoint you and nothing and no one will get away from you.

Example #5: "Les Saintes Maries de la Mer" dans le cœur des Gitans

Le Petit Camarguais Published on Aug 30, 2013

"Les Saintes Maries de la Mer" dans le cœur des Gitans le petit Camarguais.
Google Translate from French to English: "Les Saintes Maries de la Mer" in the heart of the Gypsies

Example #6: Saintes Maries de la Mer 2014

Olivier AUBERT Published on May 25, 2014

Samedi 25 mai 2014 : Pèlerinage des Gens du Voyage aux Saintes Maries de la Mer. Photos et montage : Olivier AUBERT. Formation et communication. 27400 LOUVIERS.
Google Translate from French to English: Saturday, May 25, 2014: Pilgrimage of Travellers at Saintes Maries de la Mer Photos and editing:. Olivier Aubert. Training and communication. 27400 LOUVIERS.

Example #7: Black Sarah

Tinkerscuss - Topic Published on Oct 16, 2015
Provided to YouTube by CDBaby

Black Sarah · Tinkerscuss
Click for the lyrics to this song.

"Kālī (/ˈkɑːli/; Sanskrit: काली; Telugu: కాళీ; Kannada: ಕಾಳಿ; Tamil: காளி; Bengali: কালী), also known as Kālikā (Sanskrit: कालिका, Telugu: కాళికా), is a Hindu goddess who is the mighty aspect of the goddess Durga.[1] The name Kali is derived from the Sanskrit "Kālá", or time [2] — she is therefore represents Time, Change, Power, Creation, Preservation, and Destruction.[3] "Kali" also means "the black one", the feminine noun of the Sanskrit adjective Kālá.[4][5] Her earliest appearance is that of a destroyer principally of evil forces. Various Shakta Hindu cosmologies, as well as Shākta Tantric beliefs, worship her as the ultimate reality or Brahman; devotional movements worship Kāli as a benevolent mother goddess.[6] She is often portrayed standing or dancing on her consort, the Hindu god Shiva, who lies calm and prostrate beneath her. Kali is worshipped by Hindus throughout India but particularly South India, Bengal, and Assam.[7]...

Goddesses play an important role in the study and practice of Tantra Yoga, and are affirmed to be as central to discerning the nature of reality as are the male deities. Although Parvati is often said to be the recipient and student of Shiva's wisdom in the form of Tantras, it is Kali who seems to dominate much of the Tantric iconography, texts, and rituals.[15] In many sources Kāli is praised as the highest reality or greatest of all deities. The Nirvana-tantra says the gods Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva all arise from her like bubbles in the sea, ceaselessly arising and passing away, leaving their original source unchanged. The Niruttara-tantra and the Picchila-tantra declare all of Kāli's mantras to be the greatest and the Yogini-tantra, Kamakhya-tantra and the Niruttara-tantra all proclaim Kāli vidyas (manifestations of Mahadevi, or "divinity itself"). They declare her to be an essence of her own form (svarupa) of the Mahadevi.[16]"...

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Sunday, May 22, 2016

Three African American Gospelized Renditions Of The Hymn "Child Of The King" (My Father Is Rich In Houses And Lands)

Edited by Azizi Powell

This post showcases the original tune for the 1877 Christian hymn "Child Of The King". That song's Anglo-American writer was Harriet E. Buell and music composer was John B. Sumner. This song is also referred to as "My Father Is Rich In Houses And Lands". That title might be used to differentiate it from other Christian songs that are titled "Child Of The King".

This post also showcases three African American gospelized* renditions of the 1877 Christian hymn "Child Of The King". Lyrics for that song are included in this post.

*What I mean by "African American gospelized" is to perform a hymn or some other song that isn't an African American Gospel song in one of the styles that are generally considered a form of African American Gospel music.

The content of this post is presented for religious, cultural, and aesthetic purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

Thanks to Harriet Buell and John B. Sumner for composing "A Child of the King". Thanks also to all those who are featured in these featured examples and all those who are quoted in this post. Additional thanks to the publishers of these examples on YouTube.

(Harriet E. Buell)

My Father is rich in houses and lands,
He holdeth the wealth of the world in His hands!
Of rubies and diamonds, of silver and gold,
His coffers are full, He has riches untold.

I’m a child of the King,
A child of the King:
With Jesus my Savior,
I’m a child of the King.

My Father’s own Son, the Savior of men,
Once wandered on earth as the poorest of them;
But now He is pleading our pardon on high,
That we may be His, when He comes by and by.

I once was an outcast stranger on earth,
A sinner by choice, an alien by birth,
But I’ve been adopted, my name’s written down,
An heir to a mansion, a robe and a crown.

A tent or a cottage, why should I care?
They’re building a palace for me over there;
Though exiled from home, yet still may I sing:
All glory to God, I’m a child of the King.


With the exception of Example #1, these examples are given in chronological order based on their publishing date on YouTube, with the oldest example given next.

Example #1: My Father is rich in houses and lands

normel sanita Published on Jul 23, 2013

Example #2: Florida Mass Choir - Child of the King

gospelmusiclover542 Uploaded on Jul 25, 2010

1988 Gainesville, Florida. "Let the Holy Ghost Lead You" cassette.

Example #3: Marvin Yancy - I'm A Child Of The King (Vinyl 1973)

Gospel Explosion Uploaded on Sep 25, 2011

The Best of Marvin Yancy
I'm A Child Of The King
©1985 Nashboro Records
©1978 Gospel Roots
©1973 Stax Records
Selected comments from this sound file's discussion thread:
"OMG! I haven't heard this song since I was a child growing up in the early 1980's."

inemmaus1, 2013
"Yes I remember my mother's choir marching in to this when I was just a lil boy :-)"

Example #4: Marvin Williams sings "I'm a Child of the King."

Marvin Williams, Published on Jul 2, 2013
Mary Scot, 2013
Now that's What I call singing reminds of the way they use to sing in the Baptist Church back home. 

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