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Tuesday, December 16, 2014

"Noel" by Todd Smith, Brad Holmes, arranger (videos & lyrics)

Edited by Azizi Powell

This post showcases two performances of "Noel", also known as "African Noel" by is described as an African spiritual and is said to be "by Todd Smith" and Brad Holmes, arranger. However, according to the comments by the choir's director (Brad Holmes?) that are given toward the end of the video given as Example #2 below, this song comes from the Congo and is in the Tshiluba language. I believe that "the Congo" refers to The Democratic Republic of the Congo. Given these comments, my guess is that this song was composed by an American who used Congolese lyrics. The Congolese lyrics and English translations are included in this post.

This song shouldn't be confused with the Christmas song "Sing Noel" ("African Noel"). A pancocojams post of that song can be found at http://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2014/12/sing-noel-african-noel-videos-lyrics.html.

The content of this post is presented for cultural and aesthetic purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

Thanks to the composer and the arranger of this song. Thanks to all those who are quoted in this post, and thanks also to the singers and musicians who are featured in the video. And thanks to the publisher of these videos on YouTube.

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LYRICS: NOEL ("African Noel")
(Todd Smith), Brad Holmes, arranger

Noel, Noel
Yesu me kwisa ku zinga ti beto
Noel,Noel
Yesu me kwisa ku zinga ti beto

Kana nge zola ku zaba mwana
Nge fwiti kwisa ku fukama
Kana nge zola ku zaba mwana
Nge fwiti kwisa ku fukama

Translation:
Noel, Noel
Jesus has come to live with us
Noel, Noel
Jesus has come to live with us

If you want to know the child
You have to come kneel
If you want to know the child
You have to come kneel

Source: Nihal Alfred, 2011 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F1JFj0RlAO8x [viewer comment]

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SHOWCASE VIDEO:
Example #1: "Noel" (arr. Brad Holmes) - Millikin University Choir



MillikinUniversity Choir, Uploaded on Oct 13, 2010


The first version of this arrangement of an African song by Todd Smith. The Millikin University Choir live (2005).
-snip-
Millikin University is located in Decatur, Illinois. (United States)

Here's some information about Todd Smith:
From http://www.penders.com/product_info.php/24019171/noel?products_id=24019171
"Noel is an African spiritual by Todd Smith, arranged by Brad Holmes.
Dr. Holds [sic] holds the DMA in choral conducting from Arizona State Univeristy. He has been Director of Choral Activities at Millikin University in Decatur, Illinois since 1991. He is the conductor University Choir and Concert Choir (freshmen mixed ensemble) and teachers conducting and choral methods. He is a frequent guest conductor for festivals and clinics throughout the USA."...

-snip-
Here's some information about Brad Holmes:
From https://www.millikin.edu/academics/cfa/som/Pages/FacultyandStaff.aspx
"Brad Holmes holds the DMA in choral conducting from Arizona State University. Director of Choral Activities at Millikin since 1991, Dr. Holmes leads a staff of five conductors who work with 300 singers. In addition to directing the University Choir, he teaches conducting and choral methods. His extensive guest-conducting schedule includes engagements throughout the United States in district festivals, ACDA honor choirs, church music clinics and All-State choirs."...

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Example #2: African Noel by Brad Holmes



Wlwchoirs Uploaded on May 9, 2009

All State Honors Choir
Directed by Andre Thomas
performing at the MSVMA
Michigan Youth Arts Festival
May 9, 2009

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Monday, December 15, 2014

"Sing Noel" (African Noel) videos & lyrics

Edited by Azizi Powell

This post presents three videos of the song "Sing Noel" ("African Noel").

Lyrics to two arrangements of "Sing Noel" are found below. In addition, the summary statement to the video given as Example #2 includes information about how to say "Merry Christmas" in various African languages.

Note that "Sing Noel" ("African Noel") shouldn't be confused with the Christmas song entitled "Noel" which is also known as "African Noel" by Todd Smith, Brad Holmes, arranger. Click http://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2014/12/sing-noel-african-noel-videos-lyrics.html for that post.

I'm doubtful if "Sing Noel" ("African Noel") is a traditional African song. I think that it may be a contemporary adaptation of the traditional French Christmas carol "Noel Nouvelet" ("Sing We Now Of Christmas"). For reasons of comparison, the Addendum to this post includes lyrics for and a video example of the traditional French Christmas carol "Noel Nouvelet" ("Sing We Now Of Christmas").

The content of this post is presented for cultural and aesthetic purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

Thanks to the composer/s and the arrangers of this song. Thanks to all those who are quoted in this post, and thanks also to the singers and musicians who are featured in the videos. And thanks to the publishers of these videos on YouTube.

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LYRICS: SING NOEL (AFRICAN NOEL), Version #1
Andre J. Thomas, arranger

Chorus:
Sing Noel, sing Noel, Noel, Noel (4X)
Sing we all Noel! (2X)
O sing! (Sing Noel, sing Noel, Noel, Noel) (2X)

Oh come ye people. Gather near
to hear the news of good cheer.
About the King of Kings, the Lamb of God
Who is born this day in Bethleham.
Sing Noel!

Chorus

Source: various videos

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LYRICS: SING NOEL (AFRICAN NOEL), Version #2

Chorus:
Sing Noel, sing Noel, Noel, Noel (4X)
Sing we all Noel! (2X)
O sing! (Sing Noel, sing Noel, Noel, Noel) (2X)

Jesus, King of Israel,
God with us Emmanuel,
The Prince of Peace, Almighty God
Is born today in Bethlehem!

[Repeat from the beginning]

Source: My transcription from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XiqNQzWEa9k [video with words imposed on the screen.]
-snip-
I'm interested in learning more about "Sing Noel" ("African Noel"). For instance, when was it first sung and is it an adaptation of the French carol "SIng We Now Of Christmas'? If you know information about this song, please share it in the comment section below. Thanks!

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FEATURED VIDEOS

Example #1: Choir African Noel




David Hill, Uploaded on Dec 17, 2008

arr. Andre J. Thomas. 2008 Dec 12 Dr. Greg Knauf, director

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Example #2: Sing Noel - African Christmas Song (HD)



NorthPoleChristmas, Uploaded on Jul 30, 2009

"Sing Noël" by The Marionettes Chorale & The Marionettes Youth Chorale
♫ Santa dedicates this to the many different cultural traditions of Christmas. He wishes you all a Ho Ho Ho Merry Christmas. (This is part of a series of videos that inform children about Christmas traditions and cultural differences in the way this holiday is celebrated around the world.) No copy infraction intended on my videos. Thanks for watching!

People celebrate Christmas in diverse ways throughout different parts of the world. If you know of a Christmas song, that is specific to your country, please share it with us where Elf Lollipop Leroux can create a video for everyone to enjoy. Take care and Merry Christmas!


How to Say Merry Christmas:

In Akan (Ghana):
Afishapa

In Zimbabwe:
Merry Kisimusi

In Afrikaans (South Africa):
Geseënde Kersfees

In Zulu (South Africa):
Sinifisela Ukhisimusi Omuhle

In Swazi (Swaziland):
Sinifisela Khisimusi Lomuhle

In Sotho (Lesthoto):
Matswalo a Morena a Mabotse

In Swahili (Tanzania, Kenya):
Kuwa na Krismasi njema

In Amharic (Ethiopia):
Melkam Yelidet Beaal

In Yoruba (Nigeria):
E ku odun, e hu iye' dun!

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Example #3: Sing Noel-African Noel LRCA Choir



cdg127, Uploaded on Aug 21, 2010

2009 Warrior Choir sing part of African Noel

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ADDENDUM: SING WE NOW OF CHRISTMAS (French carol)

Sing We All Noel with Lyrics - French Christmas Carol ( Noel Nouvelet fr )




bobf72450, Published on Dec 15, 2013

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LYRICS: SING WE NOW OF CHRISTMAS

Version 2

Words: Noel Nouvelet, Traditional French, 15th Century
English Traditional Carol, 17-18th Century
Translator Unknown

Tune: Noel Nouvelet, French Traditional, 15th Century.

1. Sing we now of Christmas,
Noel sing we here.
Hear our grateful praises
To the Babe so dear.

Chorus:
Sing We Noel, the King is Born, Noel!
Sing we now of Christmas, sing we now Noel!

2. Angels called to shepherds,
"Leave your flocks at rest;
Journey forth to Bethl’hem
Find the Lamb-kin blest." Chorus

3. In the stall they found Him;
Joseph and Mary mild
Seated ‘round the manger,
Watching the holy Child. Chorus

4. From the eastern country
Came the kings afar,
Bearing gifts to Bethl’hem,
Guided by a star. Chorus

5. Gold and myrrh they took there,
Gifts of greatest price;
There was ne’er a stable
So like paradise. Chorus

Source: http://www.hymnsandcarolsofchristmas.com/Hymns_and_Carols/sing_we_now_of_christmas2.htm

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Four Examples Of The Liberian Folk Song "Banuwa"

Edited by Azizi Powell

This post presents four videos of the Liberian folk song "Banuwa" ("Don't Cry"). This song appears to be part of the repertoire for a number of music classes in schools throughout the world.

The content of this post is presented for cultural and aesthetic purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

Thanks to the composer of this song. Thanks also to the transcriber of these featured lyrics, the vocalists & musicians who are featured in the videos, and the publishers of these videos on YouTube.

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LYRICS: BANUWA
From wilcokloosterman, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YMe5EFqeHis, [given as Example #1 below], 2011
"Banuwa is a Liberian folk song used as a love song, lullaby, or even a processional. Here is the original text and translation:
Banuwa, Banuwa,
Banuwa yo
A la no
nehnio la no
Nehnia la no

Don't cry, Don't Cry,
pretty little girl don't cry.
Don't cry, Don't Cry,
pretty little girl don't cry.

Your father off at the village
your mothers out for a while,
your brothers down by the river.
No need to sit and cry."
-snip-
This comment is reformatted for this post. Two other commenters wrote the same or similar lyrics for this song.

Clearly, these lyrics in a Liberian traditional language aren't the complete lyrics for the English translation.

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FEATURED EXAMPLES
These examples are presented in chronological order with the oldest dated video presented first.

Example #1: Banuwa



mananachorus, Uploaded on Feb 5, 2007

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Example #2: {Ugandan] African choir sings banuwa



Nico van den Berge Uploaded on Jun 1, 2009

...www.zendeling.wordpress.com

One by one the choir members appear from their seat and walk to the stage in front. The choir of the African Bible University in Uganda sings Banuwa during the gradution ceremony of 2009. The Mzungu in the choir is my wife Inge. Does anybody know what the word Banuwa means? (we don't) nvandenberge@cs.com
-snip-
"Mzungu" = colloquial Swahili for White person

Here's what this video's publisher wrote in response to the question is this the original version of this song:
"
Nico van den Berge, 2010
"@jesst666 Well, uh, don't know if this is THE original version. We tried to have it as original as possible, but who on earth knows the original version of a folk song like this?"

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Example #3: BANUWA.MPG



Charles Hiram Romão Bruno, Uploaded on Feb 14, 2011

MÚSICA REALIZADA NA CAPACITAÇÃO CORAL DE PROFESSORES DO PROJETO GURI PELA "TI" SANDRA LIMA
-snip-
Portuguese to English partial translation - music from chorale class for student teachers
-snip-
Notice the chest body patting alternating with individual hand claps, and thigh slaps that the choir does for percussive accompaniment for their singing.

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Example #4: Banuwa (trad. aus Liberia)



MusikLebenKristina, Published on Jan 5, 2013


trad. aus Liberia

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Sunday, December 14, 2014

From Freedom To Justice: Changes In African American Protest Terminology & Strategies

Edited by Azizi Powell

This post explores the changes that have occurred from the 1960s and thereafter in the terminology and strategies that have been used by African American protestors and their allies.

Also included in this post are two videos of 1960s civil rights marches, one video of the Jena 6 protests (2007) and five videos of 2013-2014 Black justice demonstrations.

This post is part of an ongoing pancocojams series on protest chants. Click http://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2012/03/chanting-at-trayvon-martin-march-rally.html, http://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2014/07/examples-of-black-civil-rights-chants.html, and http://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2014/01/more-protest-chants-from-north.html for three other posts in this series.

The content of this post is presented for historical and cultural purposes.

Thanks to all those who have worked and those who are now working for equality and justice for all.

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1960s - "FREEDOM" AND "CIVIL RIGHTS"
"Freedom" meant being able to be an equal part of all aspects of American life.
"Civil Rights" meant full and equal access to all American public institutions and services.

The 1960s African American protest movement is called the "Civil Rights movement". The word "protestors" wasn't commonly used to refer to that movement's participants. The general public referred to the protest movements as "demonstrations" and called their participants "demonstrators". The movement's participants called themselves "freedom fighters", and "freedom riders". "Freedom riders" were Black people and White people who challenged racial laws in the American South in the 1960s by refusing to abide by the laws designating that seating in buses be segregated by race.(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freedom_Riders)In addition to "freedom rides", the main tactics that freedom fighters used were boycotts of services, marches, rallies, and sit-ins. "Sit-ins" are any organized protest in which a group of people peacefully occupy and refuse to leave a premises. (http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/sit-in) This tactic was first used in the Civil Rights movement to force the desegregation of public restaurants in the South.

Numerous songs and chants used by that movement included the word "freedom". An example of a "freedom song" is:
"0h freedom!
Oh freedom!
Oh freedom over me.
And before I be a slave
I'll be buried in my grave.
And go home to my Lord
And be free."

An example of a civil rights call & response chant from the 1960s is:
"What do we want?
(Freedom!)
When do we want it?
(Now!)"

An example of a civil rights unison chant from the 1960s is "Freedom now!"

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The late 1960s/1970s - THE BLACK POWER MOVEMENT
The Black power movement* "emphasiz[ed] racial pride and the creation of black political and cultural institutions to nurture and promote black collective interests and advance black values (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Power)

The participants in this movement were referred to and referred to themselves as "Black power activists". The rallying cries for "freedom" and "civil rights" weren't used by Black power activists. Instead, the rallying calls were for "Black power!" and "Power to the People". Also, the
"Black power salute" was used as a widespread symbol of that movement. The Black power salute is usually made by holding the left arm above your head and sometimes extended slightly forward with the right hand in a fist. The facial expression is serious to indicate determination.

Quoting from the Wikipedia article on the black power movement whose link was previously given
"Though Black Power at the most basic level refers to a political movement, the psychological and cultural messages of the Black Power movement, though less tangible, have had perhaps a longer lasting impact on American society than concrete political changes...

The impact of the Black Power movement in generating valuable discussion about ethnic identity and black consciousness manifests itself in the relatively recent proliferation of academic fields such as American studies, Black Studies, and Africana studies in both national and international institutions. The respect and attention accorded to African Americans’ history and culture in both formal and informal settings today is largely a product of the movement for Black Power in the 1960s and 1970s."
-snip-
Wearing natural hairstyles such as the "afro" and "locks" ("dreadlocks") and adopting afro-centric
clothing fashions is also attributed to the late 1960s/1970s Black power movement.

It's significant to note that while singing protest songs was an integral part of the civil rights movement of the 1960s, singing (not including a person or people singing in front of an audience) isn't a part of Black protest movements since that decade.

*When used as a referent for Black people, it's appropriate for the letter "b" to either be capitalized or written in lower case.

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1980s
Some online references extend the Black power movement to the 1980s.

I've not been able to find any information about Black (African American) protest movements or chants in the 1980s

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BLACK JUSTICE PROTESTS - 1990s to date [strategies]
Since the 1990s, African American led demonstrations have been called "protests" and the participants in these demonstrations are called "protestors" and "demonstrators".

Instead of "freedom", "civil rights", or "black power", the rallying cry for these protests has been "justice". The word "justice" refers to "social justice", meaning "equal economic, political and social rights and opportunities" http://www.naswdc.org/pressroom/features/issue/peace.asp). In particular, since the 1990s, Black protests movement in the United States focus on the lack of justice for Black and Brown people in the criminal justice system and
the police's unequal treatment of Black and Brown people. Special focus of these protests has been the deaths of unarmed Black and Brown males by police officers and the lack of indictment of those police officers. Note that in the United States "Brown people" is usually a referent for Latinos/Latinas.

Note that a very significant aspect of the Black justice protest movements is the participation of persons across all racial, gender, age, and religious categories.

Among the tactics that justice protestors utilize are:
rallies
**
marches
Marches include planned organized marches to a specific location or locations and roving marches in which crowds move perhaps randomly throughout a large city.
**
sit-ins
**
die-ins
This tactic, which involves laying on the ground in imitation of a death, may have begun with Trayvon Martin protests in 2012. However, "die-ins" are most often associated with the death of
Eric Garner, New York City, July 17, 2014, Michael Brown, Jr. (Ferguson, Missouri, August 9, 2014, and a number of other Black males in 2014. In particular the practice of timing these die-ins for four and a half minutes is done to symbolize the four and one half hours that Michael Brown Jr. was left on the ground after he was killed by police officer Darren Wilson.
**
walk-outs
This tactic involves leaving (walking out of) a school or other place to as a form of protest and/or as an expression of support for protest or an issue or issues.
**
blockading (shutting down) streets, highways, and bridges
Protestors marching on streets, highways, and bridges and blocking access to those places in order
to draw attention to their demands.

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Special mention can be made of the "Moral Mondays" protests that began in North Carolina in 2013.
From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moral_Mondays
"The protests are characterized by engaging in civil disobedience by entering the state legislature building and then being peacefully arrested. The movement protests many wide ranging issues under the blanket of unfair treatment, discrimination, and adverse effects of government legislation on the citizens of North Carolina. The protests in North Carolina launched a grassroots social justice movement that, in 2014, spread to Georgia and South Carolina,[1] and then to other U.S. states."
**
Unlike the Occupy protests in the United States and elsewhere that began in September 2011, with
the exceptions of certain sit-ins, Black justice protestors don't occupy locations for long periods of time.

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BLACK JUSTICE PROTESTS - 1990s to date [chants]
Among the rallying calls (chants) that are used by justice protestors are:
"No Justice, No Peace" (If we don't have justice, there will be no peace.)

It appears that "no justice/no peace" was also first used in protests against the murder of Malice Green by a Detroit, Michigan police officer in November 1992. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malice_Green)That unison chant is often heard in 2014 protests against the killing of unarmed Black and Brown people by the police and the lack of indictment of those police officers.

"No justice/no peace/no racist police" is an expansion of "no justice/no peace" that was also reported as being used in the Malice Green protest marches. That chant is also used in 2014.

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"I can't breathe" (These were the last words that Eric Garner repeatedly said while he was being placed in a chokehold by police officer Daniel Pantaleo. Some die-ins last for eleven minutes to symbolize the number of times Eric Garner said "I can't breathe."

An expansion of "I can't breathe" is the unison chant "If we can't breathe/you can't breathe". That chant refers to the non-violent acts of civil disobedience that are done to draw attention to the issue of the lack of justice in the criminal justice system and the actions of bad police officers which go unpunished in that system.

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"Shut it down!
(Read the comment about "blocking [shutting down] streets etc.)

**
"Hands up!/ Don't shoot".
"Hands up. Don't shoot" is a call and response chant with accompanying body gesture of both hands held overhead in the universal symbol of surrender. This chant and its accompanying body gesture dates from Michael Brown Jr.'s death. That chant and its gesture symbolize witnesses report of Michael Brown Jr.'s hands being raised in surrender when he was killed.

**
Black lives matter.

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Forward together. Not one step back. [Moral Monday movement]

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FEATURED VIDEOS

Example #1: Martin Luther King Jr marches with people demonstrating for voting rights and oth...HD Stock Footage



CriticalPast, Published on Jun 29, 2014

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Example #2: MLK; March on Washington for Jobs & Freedom 1963/08/28



Universal Newsreels, Uploaded on Feb 21, 2009

Just one hundred years after Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation to free the slaves, 200,000 march in Washington to rally for civil rights and to urge Congress to pass the Civil Rights Bill. Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. speaks and meets President Kennedy.

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Example #3: Thousands Block Times Square for Trayvon Martin Protest



Gabbee, Published on Jul 15, 2013

Reaction continues across the country following Saturday night's verdict in the George Zimmerman trial.

Zimmerman is a free man after being found not guilty on all counts in the shooting death of Trayvon Martin.

The protests have been peaceful, for the most part.

Protests went on Sunday throughout the New York City. The largest was a march from Union Square to Times Square.

"This whole situation with Trayvon Martin is definitely ... has hit home for everybody. "This could be my brother, our sister, whether you're Black, White, whatever," said Melanie Torrence a demonstrator.

Crowds began gathering in Union Square earlier in the day and by 6:30 p.m. had nearly doubled and began spilling into the streets.

"We have to do this to show support because it's absolute essential for everyone to know that we do not feel happy with the decision," said Kate Dolan a demonstrator.

Dolan, from the Upper West Side, said while Zimmerman may be free, she hopes the frustration and disappointment felt by so many can be channeled into changing policy and legislation like Florida's Stand Your Ground law that does not require people to retreat before using force.

"Well, I think we have to recognize the justice system doesn't always provide justice and that we have got to find ways to counter legislative movements that have created laws that are now fair," Dolan said.

At the side, a lone demonstrator showed support of Zimmerman and his acquittal.

"I feel like the media and all the people made it about racism when it was really just a matter of self-defense," the unidentified woman said.

She left after clashing with Trayvon Martin supporters. By 8:00 p.m., those demonstrators had taken over Times Square, many sitting in the street, on top of cars, blocking traffic and refusing to move.

The NYPD says the demonstration were peaceful and there were no arrests.

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Example #4: NBC News - Jena 6 - 9-20-07



musclegms, Uploaded on Sep 20, 2007

NBC finally airs real details about the Jena 6 that many media outlets won't.
-snip-
From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jena_Six:
"The Jena Six were six black teenagers convicted in the beating of Justin Barker, a white student at Jena High School in Jena, Louisiana, on December 4, 2006. Barker was injured in the assault by the members of the Jena Six, and received treatment for his injuries at an emergency room. While the case was pending, it was often cited by some media commentators as an example of racial injustice in the United States, due to a belief that the defendants had initially been charged with too-serious offenses and had been treated unfairly."
-snip-
Read more information about the Jena 6 in that and other online articles.

One of the chants aired in this clip was "What do we want? (Justice!) When do we want it? (Now!). That call & response chant is modeled after the 1960s chant "What do we want? (Freedom). When do we want it? (Now!).

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Example #5: Why Moral Mondays Are Returning in 2014 | Forward Together



NC Forward Together Moral Movement Channel, Published on May 14, 2014

On May 19th, 2014, the Forward Together Movement will return to the North Carolina General Assembly for it's first Moral Monday of the 2014 Legislative

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Example #6: Eric Garner protesters flood New York after grand jury clears NYPD officer in chokehold death case



Cnn News Rt, Published on Dec 3, 2014

Protests have started in several New York City locations after a US Grand Jury cleared an NYPD policeman of killing a black man last July. Eric Garner choked to death while being wrestled to the ground by the officer.
-snip-
A number of "Black lives matter" protests have been held throughout the United States, in Europe, and elsewhere in the world.

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Example #7: Marching for justice in the nation's capital



Reuters, Published on Dec 13, 2014, Thousands gather in Washington, D.C. for the "Justice for All" march - one of many protests across the country - to protest the killings of unarmed black men by law enforcement officers in the U.S. Nathan Frandino reports.

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UPDATE: December 16, 2014

Browns' Andrew Hawkins explains why he wore a 'Justice for Tamir Rice and John Crawford' T-shirt at


cleveland.com, Published on Dec 15, 2014
-sbip-
Here's an excerpt of Andrew Hawkins' response:
From http://ftw.usatoday.com/2014/12/browns-andrew-hawkins-tamir-rice-john-crawford-shirt
..."Cleveland Browns wide receiver Andrew Hawkins gives a statement on why wore a “Justice for Tamir Rice and John Crawford” T-shirt during warm-ups and introductions before the game Sunday against the Bengals.

Hawkins stood by his decision to wear the T-shirt despite the president of Cleveland’s police union calling the gesture “pathetic” and demanding an apology.

“I was taught that justice is a right that every American should have. Also that justice should be the goal of every American. That’s what I think makes this country special,” Hawkins said Monday. “To me, justice means that the innocent should be found innocent. It means that those who do wrong should get their due punishment. Ultimately, it means fair treatment. So a call for justice shouldn’t offend or disrespect anybody. A call for justice shouldn’t warrant an apology.”

Hawkins insisted the T-shirt was not meant to be a blanket criticism of police officers, noting that he has close friends and family who are in law enforcement. But there are some “not-so-good” officers, and they need to be held accountable if they make poor decisions."...

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