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Thursday, February 23, 2017

Cuban (Lucumi) Bata Drums (information & videos)

Edited by Azizi Powell

This pancocojams post provides excerpts from one article and one dictionary about Cuban (Lucumi) Bata Drums. This post also showcases five videos of Cuban (Lucumi) bata drums.

The content of this post is presented for cultural, religious, and aesthetic purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

Thanks to all those who are quoted in this post and thanks to all those who are featured in these videos.

Thanks also to the publishers of these videos on YouTube.

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INFORMATION ABOUT BATA DRUMS
Article Excerpt #1
From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bat%C3%A1_drum
"A Batá drum is a double-headed drum shaped like an hourglass with one end larger than the other. The percussion instrument is used primarily for the use of religious or semi-religious purposes for the native culture from the land of Yoruba, located in Nigeria, as well as by worshippers of Santería in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and in the United States. The Batá drum's popular functions are entertainment and to convey messages. Its early function was as a drum of different gods, drum of royalty, drum of ancestors and drum of politicians. Batá drum impacted on all spheres of life.[1]

The Lukumí (or commonly called santería) religion and Batá drums are closely associated. The drums are played simultaneously (often with a rattle or "atchere") to create polyrhythmic compositions, or "toques" during santería ceremonies. A ceremony with batá drums is generally known as a "toque," "tambor de santo," or "bembé," but ceremonies can also be accompanied by shaken gourd-rattle "chékere" (in English "shekere") ensembles (usually with tumbadora, also called conga drums). There are estimated to be at least 140 different toques for the spirits (saints, or santos) and their different manifestations. There are two important "rhythm suites" that use the sacred batá drums. The first is called "Oru del Igbodu" (a liturgical set of rhythms), alternatively called "Oru Seco" (literally "Dry Oru", or a sequence of rhythms without vocals), which is usually played at the beginning of a "tambor de santo" that includes 23 standard rhythms for all the orishas. The selections of the second suite include within them the vocal part to be performed by a vocalist/chanter (akpwon) who engages those attending the ceremony in a call-and-response (African) style musical experience in which a ritual is acted out wherein an "initiate" (one who through the great spirit Añá is granted the ability to perfectly play the Batá drums) plays the new Batá set, and thereafter is introduced to the old Batá set. This is said to "transfer" (through the initiate) the spirit or Añá of the drums from the old set into the new set.

Certain long-standing rules and rituals govern the construction, handling, playing, and care of the sacred batá: traditionally only non-castrated male deer or goat hide was used—female goats along with bulls, cows, and sheep were considered unsuitable; also only an initiate was considered worthy to touch or play the batá as only they have undergone the full ritual of "receiving Añá" granting them the forces deemed necessary to play the drums. Also, before a ceremony, the drummers would wash themselves in omiero, a cleansing water, pray, and for some time abstain from sex.

Also traditionally in Cuba, in Havana the batá are rarely played after sundown, while in Matanzas toque ceremonies often begin at night."...

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Article Excerpt #2
From https://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=es&u=http://www.proyecto-orunmila.org/index.php%3FItemid%3D82%26option%3Dcom_dictionary%26view%3Ddictionary%26change_css%3Dbrown&prev=search Santería, Vocaburaio Lucumí, Dictionary [Translated from Spanish to English, given as it was found on that page] *
"Bata
(Ortiz). "According to the Yoruba dictionary of Oxford, batá is a drum used by the faithful of Changó and Egungun." "They are three drums of a religious character, used in the ceremonies of the cults practiced by the Lucumí or Yorubas and their Creole descendants. The orchestra lucumí or is the one of the batá or the one of the agbe or chekeré. Drum! Skin! Leather! Sandal. The three drums of the Yoruba liturgy are properly called the "aña" or "añá" and the profane name of ilú ".

Waiting for a better opinion, we assume that the word aña or añá is creole or dialectal corruption of the Yoruba voices "dza" or "dya", means "to war" and also "to rage a storm". The prefix "a" forms nouns with a verbal root; For that reason, it is the supernatural power of the Bata, and it is the supernatural power of the Batá, That defends them, thunders and fights against their enemies ". "Aña is a mysterious object with sacromagic power that is introduced into the closed resonant boxes of the batá drums, when they are built and consecrated." "The knowledge of this cryptic name has in itself a certain sacromagic power that the" olori "or musician employs to dominate his instrument." The "secret" or buzzing of the batá is precisely what is called. Ilú áña or batá is the drum when he is "sworn". Aña is the "guard," "spell," "fetish," or magic that enshrines them. It is the "secret" of the god Aña. "To make a batá game that is" grounded "or" Aña ", it is necessary to consecrate a priest who has" Aña "and can transmit it ... Its creation is in the exclusive faculties of the" olosaín "Or priests of Osaín, the god of the trees and plants or of its magical and medicinal forces".

"Aña iggilú nitín chouó", they pray to him to give food to the olú by the ring of the edge of his chacha. Which seems to be Creole corruption of Aña igguí ilú gui tichouón or translated "Aña, from the tree tambor made the speech was precious." Synonymy: batá. Battá, ilú batá. Ilú áña, bata áña, Onibatá, onilú.

The smallest drum is called Kónkolo, Okónkolo, and generally also Omelé. The median drum, or second by its size, is known by Itótele or Omeló Enkó. The word Itótele may come from the Yoruba voices: "i", a prefix to denote nouns of action "," totó " "Kónkolo" (the real name) or Okonkolo as it is usually said, seems to have been derived from the word Yoruba: Kónkoto "god" Or toy of the children ", alluding to the fact that the Kónkolo is the smallest of the sacred batá, the baby, or boy, as well as iyá is the major or the mother.

Kónkolo more probably had to be formed by" kon " Singing with repetition of the root in a repetitive sense, and what, like lu, means "to beat a drum or to sound a musical instrument". "Sometimes the drums falter, the weariness is noticed in their touch, then some of the listeners shout to them" Omleh, so that all of them may revive their energies. "In yoruba omé lé can mean" Boys, strong! The omelé voice could come from another "child" and "strong", "over others". The Kon kolo u omelé is in fact the smallest of the batá, that is to say the "boy" and also the one that gives in his small leather the highest note of the batá. ""

The membranes of the batá are of skin Of goat or deer. "Each drum has two mouths (enú) covered with leather (auó)." Specifically, the big auó is called enú, which in Yoruba means "boca" ...; And the small auó is called chacha. Voice onomatopéyica that in the native vernacular translates freely by "butt". Chachá is not synonymous with leather or membrane of ilú. "In the batá orchestra, the iyá occupies the center, the omelé is invariably placed on the right side of the iyá and itótele on its left side, even though the Kpuátaki is left-handed and plays the chacha with the right."

The batá are never played after sunset. It is said by a Lucumí song: "Orú dié aña ko ofé soró" (Night, little year, does not want to speak) ... "These ornaments of shawls and handkerchiefs in the batá are denominated alá". "In addition to the common alá, the batá aña are exceptionally dressed in a special liturgical garment, which in Cuba is called banté and in the land of Yoruba ibanté Ibanté means" apron. "(The ibanté salalá was used by kings or priests "By the manipulation of the oracle this designates the name to be taken by the trio of batá, according to the" road "or the Odun that comes out when the pieces of divination fall at random. Here are some of the sacred names that have the batá of some famous tamboreros of Havana and its region: Aña Iguilú (something like "drums of hauled wood") .

Añabi (son of Aña) is name of the batá. .. (de) Aguía batá. Other batá titles are Akoba Aña ("the first son of the drum") and Aiguobí (son of the music or the bulla). Recently, a trio of batá was baptized with the name encomaystic of Alayé, that in Yoruba means "Master of the World". There are batá Jews and they also have name. One of these is called Iraguó Méta ("Three stars"). Another, quite imperfect, Lulú Yonkóri ("Touch and song"). Ko bo ko gua ("not for worship, do not come"). Another very insulting, says Oró tin Ochú Kuá bi oré. Which seems to mean "Deception! They made you into a new moon, born of a gift or mercy." And another was given a more repugnant title ... Olomí Yobó, "Flow or menstruum of the vulva". The drums being "jurados" with sacerdotal hierarchy, acquire a name like the olochas and the babalaos. Okilákpa, Strong Arm. Omó Ológun, Son of the Master of Magic. E Goal Lókan, Three in one. Obanilú, King of the drum. Eruáña, Slave of Aña. Otobike, Omó gugú, Yóboyobo, etc.

The orú of the batá is a kind of musical hymnal that is called in honor of the orichas; Previously in the "room", tabernacle or igbódu; First without songs and only with drumming, and then with the accompaniment of the liturgical chant and the dances in the ille aránla. Special touches are many and each has its name. Aluyá, the one dedicated to Changó and Oyá, very alive and that dances "removing the foot". Báyuba, also of Changó and Oyá, slow, complicated and "very moved of waist". Kankán, from Changó with many foot movements like "kicking a stone". Tuitui, also for Changó with ballroom dancing. Aláro, in salutation to Yemayá. Apkuápkuá, a kind of shoe for the same goddess. Chenché Kururu, in honor of the goddess Ochún. Ayálikú, rhythm and sad and funerary tones, inspiration of Oya, goddess of death. Aggueré, a clash, a percussive frenzy in the chacha, dedicated to Ochosi. And so many more, innumerable."
-snip-
*This entry is reformatted in this post to enhance its readability.

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SHOWCASE VIDEOS
Example #1: Bata drumming instructional DVD from Matanzas, Cuba



earthcds, Uploaded on May 21, 2007

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Example #2: Bata Drumming in Havana, Cuba, Rhythm Traders Roadtrip



Rhythm Traders, Uploaded on Jul 12, 2008

Miguel Bernal and his group demonstrate bata drumming and orisha chants at his home in Havana, Cuba

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Example #3: Tambor de Fundamento a Odua 1/16



Ifaoddara, Uploaded on Jan 6, 2011

Tambor OBAINA LA FORTUNA
OLU BATA, OMO ODUN,

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Example #4: ORO SECO - 'Lukumi', Dominic Kirk, Yosvani. La Habana, 2013



Dominic Kirk , Published on May 6, 2013

Tambores Bata tocando el 'Oro Seco' completo. La Habana, Cuba, 15/1/13

Iya/Mayor - Michael 'Lukumi' Herrera Duarte,
Itotele/Segundo - Dominic Kirk,
Okonkolo - Yosvani Diaz,
-snip-
"Tambores Bata tocando el 'Oro Seco' completo= (From Spanish to English): Bata drummers perform the complete "Oro Seco".
-snip-
"Oro" is a Spanish word meaning "gold". Google translates gives the English meaning of "oro seco" as "dry gold". However, the word "oro" may be a Spanish adapted form of the Yoruba word orú, meaning "night".

Notice that "oru" is given in the article excerpts that are quoted in this post. For instance, here's information about oru seco from the excerpt given above as Article Excerpt #1:
"There are two important "rhythm suites" that use the sacred batá drums. The first is called "Oru del Igbodu" (a liturgical set of rhythms), alternatively called "Oru Seco" (literally "Dry Oru", or a sequence of rhythms without vocals), which is usually played at the beginning of a "tambor de santo" that includes 23 standard rhythms for all the orishas."...

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Example #5: Chachalokuafun, Bata drums, Havana Cuba



Dan Callis, Published on Apr 5, 2015

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The Nigerian Origins & Cuban Meanings Of The Word "Lukumi"

Edited by Azizi Powell

This post provides excerpts of selected online articles and discussion forum comments about the word "lukumi". Additional excerpts are from online introductions from Lukumi dictionaries/glossaries.

The content of this post is presented for etymological, historical, and cultural purposes.

Note: I compile hyperlinked excerpts of online articles/discussion threads to make pancocojams visitors aware of these resources and to help increase the likelihood that those online articles/discussion threads will be preserved for the historical and cultural record.

I encourage pancocojams readers to click on those links and read the full articles, discussion threads, and dictionaries/glossaries.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

Thanks to all those who are quoted in this post.

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EXCERPTS FROM SELECTED ONLINE SOURCES ABOUT THE WORD "LUKUMI"
These excerpts are given in no particular order. I've numbered them for referencing purposes only.

Article Excerpt #1:
From http://www.orishaimage.com/blog/yoruba-lukumi-guide THE INCOMPLETE YORÙBÁ GUIDE TO LUKUMÍ [retrieved Feb. 23, 2017]

Introduction

Like many “aleyos” I first came into contact with Orisha worship while travelling to Cuba. I went there to study popular Latin percussion and ended up taking folkloric batá drum lessons. Years later I was learning songs and prayers of the Lukumí-people, as the Yorùbá descendants call themselves there - from my Padrino. I always wanted to know their exact meaning and recognized that interpretation varies a lot. As I was enrolled in African language studies as a student at first I thought it should not be too difficult deciphering the Yorùbá. I started taking private Yorùbá classes with a Nigerian teacher and got into the “retranslation-issue”. I wanted to share some of my personal experience in this post.

The term “Yorùbá” itself has its roots in the Hausa people and their language in the northern parts of Nigeria. They call their neighbours in the south today still “Bàyarabé”. This name was adopted by the colonists and over the centuries became “Yorùbá”. The Yorùbá people in the past would have defined themselves as the subgroup and dialect group they belonged to, linked to different kingdoms, not as a single ”nation”. Also in Cuba various “cabildos de nación” existed, with names like Oyo, Egguado, Ibada, Iyechá, Ketu, Ife etc. This shows that Yorùbá slaves once sticked to their local identities even in the diaspora of slavery. In their own language Yorùbá would call themselves “ọmọ Odùduwà”, childs of Oduduwa. Nowadays the term “Yorùbá” is of course widely in use and many Lukumí in Cuba also use it to describe their culture.

Slave-trade grouped African people together into different categories. Loose ethnic or local descriptions were used for people of the same origin, like Ewe/Fon-speaking slaves from the area of the city Alada in today's Republic of Benin became registered as “Arara” at the port in Havana, or ”Rada” in Haiti. The term ”Lukumí” comes from a name that was given to a certain region in Yorùbá-land called "Ulkami, Ulcumi, Ulkuma, Lucamee" and can be found in historic maps from colonial times in West Africa. In Cuba this became the name for Yorùbá speaking people to refer to their own “nation”.

For this article I differ between Yorùbá, the spoken language in Nigeria, and Lukumí, the remains of this language as used by the Spanish-speaking people in Cuba for reciting prayers and songs of their ancestors. The language Yorùbá had no written form up to 1850, when Samuel A.Crowther, a freed Yorùbá-slave, translated the bible into Yorùbá. He was educated and raised by Christian missionaries in Sierra Leone, where many captured slaveships where unloaded by the British. He developed the first standard of written Yorùbá, using the English alphabet based on Oyo and Ibadan dialects...

There is also a general tendency to mark Yorùbá-words in Lukumí with a diacritic mark on the end of the word, as a kind of general sign for any Yorùbá-word. In my experience it is often pronounced correctly in speech, but when it comes to writing, Lukumí often does not correlate to the spoken language. Like the Yorùbá-term “Òsùn” (Ifá-staff, known as “Oricha guerrero” in Cuba). Although written “Osún” or “Ozún” in Lukumí it is always pronounced with an emphasis on the first syllable. It seems like the diacritic marks often are just used for decorating a word of African origin....

Yor. Èṣù = Luk. Echú (name of Orisha)
Yor. Ọya = Luk. Oyá (name of Orisha)
Yor. bàtà (shoes), bàtá (name of a drum) = Luk. batá (shoes, name of a drum)
Yor. Ọbàtálá = Luk. Obatalá (name of Orisha)
Yor. ìlù (drum), ilú (city) = Luk. ilú (drum or city)
Yor. ọ̀tá (enemy), ọta (stone) = Luk. otá (enemy or stone)
Yor. ara (body), ará (people), àrá (thunder) = Luk. ará (body, people, thunder)….

Yor. Ṣ = Luk. CH

The Yorùbá “ṣ” sound, depending on the dialect, is more or less like the English “sh” in “shoulder“ and does not exist in Spanish. Instead it became a strong and sharp sounding “ch” sound (pronounced like in English ”etching”), almost without any exception. Wande Abimbola said in the book “Ifá will mend the broken world” there are also Yorùbá dialects which pronounce the “ṣ” in this strong way and maybe this is also due to the influence of slaves from the Kétu or Ònkò region. Although it is obvious that it has to do a lot with Spanish influence as well.

Yor. àṣẹ = Luk. aché (universal energy)
Yor. Òrìṣà = Luk. Oricha (spiritual entity)
Yor. Ọ̀ṣun = Luk. Ochún (name of Orisha)
Yor. aṣọ = Luk. achó (piece of clothes)
Yor. ṣaworo (jingling bells) = Luk. chaworó (bells on bàtá-drums)
Yor. double vowels = Luk. one vowel"

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Article Excerpt #2:
From ttps://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=es&u=http://www.lahistoriaconmapas.com/historia/definicion-de-lucumi/&prev=search [translated from Spanish to English]
"Lucumí

01/11/2007 History
Tweet
Voice of Yoruba African origin, belonging to Afrocuban cultural and religious lexicon, and, more specifically, Santeria, Afro-Cuban popular religion, often used as a synonym for Yoruba, especially in religious contexts related to the Santera religion.

In any case, the origins and the evolution of the term are very confusing, since it was introduced massively mainly in the XVIII and XIX centuries, with the development of the sugar industry. Some specialists have argued that it is related to Ulkumy, a region situated to the east of the kingdom of Dahomey, in present-day southern Nigeria, which, beginning in 1734, began to appear in documentary sources under a different name, Ayo or Oyó. It was one of the regions where thousands of Yoruba slaves, kidnapped by the traffickers of European and American men, went to the islands of the Caribbean and many other American ports. Scholars like Heriberto Feraudy have pointed out, however, that the Lucumí voice comes from the term yoruba olùkumi "I am a good man", that would have been repeated by the slaves, by way of protection or protest of innocence, when they were deported.

Bibliography

BARNET, Miguel. Afro-Cuban Cults: The Rule of Ocha. The Rule of Palo Monte (Havana, 1995).
FERNÁNDEZ MARTÍNEZ, Mirta and PORRAS POTTS, Valentina. The ashé is in Cuba (La Habana, 1998).

JMP

LUCUMÍ
Source: Britannica"

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Article Excerpt #3:
From http://pluralism.org/religions/afro-caribbean/afro-caribbean-traditions/santeria-the-lucumi-way/
"Of all the New World societies, Cuba received captives from the greatest mix of African origins. They came from all parts of the coast and interior of western Africa, their numbers dwarfing all reliable estimates of the number of captives brought to the entire United States. Between 500,000 and 700,000 Africans reached Cuba, the majority arriving in the nineteenth century. The size, diversity, and continual replenishment of this population allowed a rich array of African-inspired religions to flourish there, even beyond the end of the slave trade.

The gods of West Africa are called orisha in Yoruba, oricha in Spanish. Yoruba people also speak of a supreme being, Olorun or Olodumare, whose power or life-energy, called ashe, becomes manifest through both ancestral spirits and the orisha. In Cuba, as in Haiti, West African gods became paired with Roman Catholic saints in syncretistic relationships. In Cuba, the ruler of lightning, called Shango in Yoruba and Chango in Spanish, is identified with St. Barbara. Ogun, the lord of iron and technology, is identified with St. George, Babalu Aye is identified with St. Lazarus, and Yemaya, goddess of the sea, with Our Lady of Regla, the patroness of a Havana suburb.

It has long been common to call Cuban oricha-worship “Santería” because of the identification of the orichas with the saints. However the term is now being rejected by those who think it overemphasizes the Catholic and syncretistic elements. Increasingly, many within the Afro-Caribbean tradition prefer to call it La Regla Lucumi, “the order of Lucumi,” or La Regla de Ocha, “the order of the orichas.” The term Lucumi is said to derive from a Yoruba greeting meaning, “my friend.”

In the past few decades, Santería, or La Regla Lucumi, has come to the United States with Cuban immigrants: in New York, for instance, some believe the Statue of Liberty embodies the presence of Yemaya. Botanicas selling the religious articles, herbs, candles, and images of the tradition proliferate in Miami, Seattle, and New York. It is estimated that between 250,000 and one million practice Santería in the United States. However there is no visible infrastructure, and most practitioners, if asked, would publicly identify themselves as Catholic.”...

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Article Excerpt [Discussion Forum] #4:
From http://www.nairaland.com/838249/yoruba-language-most-influential-nigerian/4
Re: Yoruba Language Is The Most Influential Nigerian Language Outside Nigeria. by Ptolomeus(m): 9:31pm On Feb 03, 2012Re: Yoruba Language Is The Most Influential Nigerian Language Outside Nigeria. by Ptolomeus(m): 9:31pm On Feb 03, 2012
"Dear friend amor4ce
Reading his interesting presentation, I noticed that you separate the Yoruba language of the "Lucumi" languaje. The term "Lucumi" is widely used on the island of Cuba to refer to both the Yoruba language as them. In my work as a researcher, some documents refer to the term "Lucumi" became so used to calling the Yoruba, under which they (the Yoruba) very often used the phrase "Lukumí" that mean something in Yoruba as "my friend"...

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Re: Yoruba Language Is The Most Influential Nigerian Language Outside Nigeria. by amor4ce(m): 1:03am On Feb 06, 2012
"The Yoruba-speaking people of Cuba who are called Lucumi just might be the descendants of their fellow Yoruba speakers in Delta state of Nigeria who call themselves and their Yoruba dialect Ulukwumi. Note that some Igbo people on this forum have been trying to claim the Ulukwumi as Igbo."

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Article #5 & #6
#5: From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ulukwumi_language
"Ulukwumi is a small Yoruba language spoken among the Edoid languages of Delta State, Nigeria."

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#6:
From https://www.ethnologue.com/language/ulb
"Ulukwumi
A language of Nigeria
Population
L1 users: 10,000 (Crozier and Blench 1992).
Location
Edo state: Esan South East LGA, west of Niger river."
-snip-
From http://legacy.joshuaproject.net/people-profile.php?peo3=15704&rog3=NI “The Joshua Project” indicates that there are 18,000 Ulukwumi in Nigeria. “Ulukwumi” on that page refers to the ethnic group-a subset of Yoruba- and to the language that they speak.

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Article Excerpt #7 & #8
#7:
From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucum%C3%AD_people
"The Lucumí people are an Afro-Cuban ethnic group[1] of Yoruba ancestry[2] that practice La Regla Lucumí.[3][4]"

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#8:
From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucum%C3%AD_language
"Lucumí is a Yoruba dialect and the liturgical language of Santería in Cuba.[3][4] It is sometimes known as Yorùbá.[5] It is the language of the Yoruba people, brought to the New World by African slaves, and preserved in Santería, Candomblé, and other transplanted African religions. The Yoruba descendents in these communities, as well as non-descendents that have adopted one of the Yoruba-based religions in the diaspora, no longer speak any of the Yoruba dialects with any level of fluency. And the liturgical usage also reflects the compromise of the language whereby there isn't an understand of correct grammar nor proper intonation. Spirit possession by the Yoruba deities in Cuba shows that the deity manifested in the devotee at a Cuban orisa ceremony delivers messages to the faithful in Bozal, a type of Spanish-based creole with some words of Yoruba language as well as those of Bantu origin with an inflection similar to the way Africans would speak as they were learning Spanish during enslavement."

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Article Excerpt [Dictionary List] #9
From http://www.orishanet.org/vocab.html
"Lucumí Vocabulary

Lucumí or Lacumí is the Yoruba language as it is spoken in Cuba and the United States. Yoruba is a tonal language like Chinese...

I should note here that Lacumí is an oral tradition and that the written versions were meant to be more "cheat sheets" than anything else and should not be used as "proof" of the decomposition of the language. Lakumí speakers in Matanzas and other areas speak very much as any Yoruba speaker would. I have spoken with Nigerian born Yoruba speakers in Lacumí without any difficulty whatsoever. In fact, on one occasion I was greeted with a very surprised "you speak Yoruba!!!" from the astonished Yoruba man I was speaking with.”...

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Article Excerpt #10
From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santer%C3%ADa
"Santería, also known as Regla de Ochá , La Regla de Ifá,[1][2] or Lucumi is a syncretic religion of Caribbean origin that developed in the Spanish Empire among West African descendants. Santeria is also a Spanish word that means the worship of saints. Santería is influenced by and syncretized with Roman Catholicism. Its liturgical language, a dialect of Yoruba, is also known as Lucumí."

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Article Excerpt [Glossary] #11
From http://www.archerbarron.com/a-glossary-of-lucumi-words-and-ideas/
"A Glossary of Lucumi Words and Ideas

This glossary of English, Spanish and Lucumí terms aims at illuminating aspects of How to Greet Strangers, not at providing a full description of the Lucumí religious tradition also known as Santería. For further information, see: Santería: African Spirits in America by Joseph M. Murphy; Santería Enthroned: Art Ritual and Innovation in an Afro-Cuban Religion by David M. Brown; and The Diloggun: The Orishas, Proverbs, Sacrifices, and Prohibitions of Cuban Santeria by Ocha’ni Lele.

Unless a word is noted as English, this glossary follows Spanish rules for accent. If an accent is marked, the stress of the word falls on the marked syllable. Words with unmarked accents are to be pronounced according to normal Spanish rules: on the next to last syllable if the word ends in a vowel, n or s; in all other cases on the last syllable. Modern Yoruba, sister language to Lucumí, has its own system of accent and other diacritical marks. The Spanish accent system is more accurate to the pronunciation of these words in the Yoruban diaspora in both Cuba and the United States."...

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Tuesday, February 21, 2017

The "Woyo Wo Yo Yo Yo" Lyrics In Bob Marley's "Buffalo Soldiers" Song & Other Songs"

Edited by Azizi Powell

This pancocojams post showcases Jamaican Reggae singer/composer Bob Marley's song "Buffalo Soldier". Special attention is given to the "woyo wo yo yo yo" lyrics and their possible source in the Jamaican "awoh" expression that is derived from the Igbo (Nigerian) expression "ewoh".

Links to YouTube examples of some other Reggae songs that include the woyo wo yo yo yo" lyrics are also included in this post.

The content of this post is presented for cultural, entertainment, and aesthetic purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

Thanks to Bob Marley for his musical legacy. Thanks also to all those who are quoted in this post and thanks to the publishers of this YouTube video and the other YouTube examples that are noted in this post.

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PANCOCOJAMS EDITOR [Revised Feb 22, 2017]
This post includes my speculations about the possible Nigerian source of Bob Marley's lyrics "woyo wo yo yo yo". Other vocalists have also included "wo woyo yo yo" in their songs, probably as a result of Bob Marley's popularization of those lyrics.

I have no proof that "woyo wo yo yo yo" is derived from the Jamaican Igbo expression "ewoh" or its Yoruba form "awoh". My supposition is that Jamaican Bob Marley was certainly familiar with the colloquial use of "ewoh", "awoh", or "wo yo", and may have created the adapted chant "woyo wo yo yo yo" from one of those expressions for its rhythmic musicality.

The comments that I read on a nairaland.com (Nigerian) discussion thread suggest that possibility to me - without mentioning the woyo wo yo yo yo chant, Bob Marley, or any other musician/vocalists except for Carriacou's Big Drum dance/song "Ibole Ible Wo Yo". I included some of those nairaland.com comments in this pancocojams post http://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2017/02/a-carriacaou-caribbean-big-drum-song.html. That post features selected comments from a nairaland.com discussion thread t hat explores the possible Igbo sources of and meanings for the lyrics to "Ibole Ibole woy yo". "Ibole Ibole woy yo" is the ong for the Ibo nation dance, which is part of the Caribbean island of Carriacaou's Big Drum Dance.

Excerpts from that pancocojams post are included in the section below that is entitled "Speculative Sources & Meanings Of The "Woyo Wo Yo Yo Yo" Chant.

Also, click http://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2012/02/young-gifted-black-buffalo-soldiers-and.html for a 2012 pancocojams post entitled "Young, Gifted & Black", "Buffalo Soldiers" And Other Songs About Black Pride".

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SHOWCASE VIDEO: BOB MARLEY AND THE WAILERS - BUFFALO SOLDIER - Official Video www.jah-reggae.com



ReGGaeOnline Uploaded on Nov 6, 2009

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LYRICS: Buffalo Soldier, Dreadlock Rasta:
There was a Buffalo Soldier in the heart of America,
Stolen from Africa, brought to America,
Fighting on arrival, fighting for survival.

I mean it, when I analyze the stench -
To me it makes a lot of sense:
How the Dreadlock Rasta was the Buffalo Soldier,
And he was taken from Africa, brought to America,
Fighting on arrival, fighting for survival.

Said he was a Buffalo Soldier, Dreadlock Rasta -
Buffalo Soldier in the heart of America.

If you know your history,
Then you would know where you coming from,
Then you wouldn't have to ask me,
Who the 'eck do I think I am.

I'm just a Buffalo Soldier in the heart of America,
Stolen from Africa, brought to America,
Said he was fighting on arrival, fighting for survival;
Said he was a Buffalo Soldier win the war for America.

Dreadie, woy yoy yoy, woy yoy-yoy yoy,
Woy yoy yoy yoy, yoy yoy-yoy yoy!
Woy yoy yoy, woy yoy-yoy yoy,
Woy yoy yoy yoy, yoy yoy-yoy yoy!
Buffalo Soldier troddin' through the land, wo-ho-ooh!
Said he wanna ran, then you wanna hand,
Troddin' through the land, yea-hea, yea-ea.

Said he was a Buffalo Soldier win the war for America;
Buffalo Soldier, Dreadlock Rasta,
Fighting on arrival, fighting for survival;
Driven from the mainland to the heart of the Caribbean.

Singing, woy yoy yoy, woy yoy-yoy yoy,
Woy yoy yoy yoy, yoy yoy-yoy yoy!
Woy yoy yoy, woy yoy-yoy yoy,
Woy yoy yoy yoy, yoy yoy-yoy yoy!

Troddin' through San Juan in the arms of America;
Troddin' through Jamaica, a Buffalo Soldier# -
Fighting on arrival, fighting for survival:
Buffalo Soldier, Dreadlock Rasta.

Woy yoy yoy, woy yoy-yoy yoy,
Woy yoy yoy yoy, yoy yoy-yoy yoy!
Woy yoy yoy, woy yoy-yoy yoy,
Woy yoy yoy yoy, yoy yoy-yoy yoy! [fadeout]

http://www.azlyrics.com/lyrics/bobmarley/buffalosoldier.html

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COMMENTS ABOUT SOME OTHER SONGS THAT INCLUDE THE "WOYO WO YO YO YO" CHANT
From https://www.reddit.com/r/tipofmytongue/comments/4omm7h/tomt_song_woi_yowoi_yo_yo_yo_reggaehiphop_sample/
[TOMT] [SONG] 'woi yo...woi yo yo yo' reggae/hip-hop sample use (self.tipofmytongue)
by SenorButtmunch, 2016
"Technically I don't even know if the thing I'm looking for actually exists but it's worth a shot.
Over the years I've heard a lot of songs - usually reggae/hip-hop/jungle/drum and bass use a certain tune/melody. I think it's most famously used by rapper Foxy Brown in her song 'Oh Yeah' (around 0:25 in). It's a beat I think used initially in Bob Marley's 'Punky Reggae Party' (around 0:10) and I remember hearing it in Ini Kamoze's 'Listen Me Tic' (0:25).

The other day I was at a festival and I remember a DJ playing a mix with a sample of someone doing that same 'wo yo' chant. It was over a drum and bass beat and it got the crowd pretty pumped. I don't know who the DJ was or if it was just an on-the-spot mix but it was good. So if anyone knows of any songs that have that sample in, even if it's not d&b, can you post it so I can get an idea of at least where the sample was from!
Thanks!
tl;dr - wo yoooo, wo yo yo yo"

**
SamCarterX206I know google-fu, 2016
"It appears you may have already identified it- the Bob Marley song.
If you look at their Whosampled.com entries, you'll see that Foxy Brown sampled Bob Marley's "Punky Reggae Party" at approximately the times you mentioned.

http://www.whosampled.com/sample/217064/Foxy-Brown-Spragga-Benz-Oh-Yeah-Bob-Marley-Punky-Reggae-Party/

And "Punky Reggae Party" http://www.whosampled.com/Bob-Marley/Punky-Reggae-Party/ has one other song listed as having sampled from the same place, no samples used from other songs listed.

**
OzRockabella, 2016
I didn't listen to the things, but Buffalo Soldier by Bob Marley contains that 'yoi yoi yoi' chant.
-snip-
Here are links for the two songs that are mentioned in these comments:
Foxy Brown- Oh Yeah https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0TDWPlVvw88

In addition, Ini Kamoze's Dancehall song "Listen Me Tic" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pb9gaF0O1xc also includes the "woyo yo yo" lyrics.

Do you know any other songs that include the "wo woyo yo yo" lyrics? If so, please add them in the comment section below. Thanks!
****
SPECULATIVE SOURCES & MEANINGS OF THE "WO WOYO YO YO" CHANT
EXCERPT #1:
From http://www.nairaland.com/2216513/ibo-yoruba-speakers-me Can Any Ibo Or Yoruba Speakers Help Me?", March 25, 2015

[Pancocojams Editor: I've assigned numbers to these selected comments. These numbers are different than order of the comments in the nairaland.com discussion and are also different than the numbers that I assigned on the previous pancocojams post whose link is given above.]

Comment #1: Can Any Ibo or Yoruba Speakers Help Me? by Carriacou1985(f): 4:06pm On Mar 25, 2015
"I live in England and my Mother is from a small island in the Caribbean called Carriacou. Carriacou is known for holding onto many African traditions but of course after thousands of years these have probably changed from the African traditions brought by their ancestors.

It is known that the people on the island of Carriacou originate from the Ibo, Akan and Temme tribes. We have a tradition that has been past down from our ancestors brought to the island from the slave trade, known as the big drum dance, this is usually done for weddings, deaths ect, in order for the ancestors to bless the ceremony.
I am particularly interested in what we call the Ibo nation dance, a song they sing and dance to is called: Ibole Ibole woy yo

The lyrics are as follows:

Gongo banan plantain me wo yo
Ibole Ibole woy yo
Hele bu Legba wo yo

I wanted to know if any Ibo speakers know if this actually comes from the Nigerian Ibo language?
Just curious about understanding my culture better and hope someone can help, any answers will be appreciated.... Thanks in advance"

**
Comment #2: bigfrancis21(m): 9:48pm On Mar 25, 2015
..."On deep inspection of the lyrics, the lyrics look a lot Igbo. There are a lot of Igbo words in it such as he', 'bu', 'le', 'ewoh' (or 'awoh' as used in Jamaica - another area with a huge percentage of Igbo-descended peoples). 'Le' and 'ewoh' are Igbo words used for expression. If you watch Nigerian Nollywood movies that portray mostly Igbo culture, you would hear 'ewoh' a lot. Take for example, 'he has died. ewo!', 'i just bought a car. ewo!' I see a lot of 'wo' in the lyrics, probability elongated over the years to 'wo yo', as common with language evolution over time.

**
Comment #3: ezeagu(m): 10:57pm On Mar 25, 2015
"...I think we can confirm that 'wo yo' is ewoh and that 'Ibole' is Igbo lé.

And I like that you also noticed Jamaicans say awoh. Cha may also be Igbo related."
-snip-
[added Feb 22, 2017: from http://members.tripod.com/~Livi_d/language/patois_dictionary.htm Talk Jamaican
" "CHA! or CHO!-a disdainful expletive (1) pshaw! (2) very common, mild explanation expressing impatience, vexation or disappointment."
-end of quote added Feb. 22, 2017-
-snip-
From http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=chai, has this entry for the word "chai"
"South-Western Nigerian Slang
The slang is an exclamation word that a lot of Nigerians use.

Chai!!! See that ass, Chai!! i don die, Chai!! wetin be that?
#kai #chei #chaii #choi #chaai"
by Baba Ade December 02, 2011

**
Comment #4: Nobody: 11:07pm On Mar 25, 2015
...."Wo yo being a meaningless onomatopeic expression. Igbo chants typically use such expressions at the end of a line to keep the rhythm."

**
Comment #5: absoluteSuccess: 11:37am On Apr 06, 2015
..."wo in Yoruba is to move in one accord from place to place in celebration, it is iwo lu or iwode (e-war-day).

But if your pronounciation is Wo as in Woe, that stands for a shout of joy."

****
EXCERPT #2
From http://simplyuniquee.weebly.com/patois.html
"What exactly is Patwa? Where did the words come from?

It [Patwa] was made from the intermixing of the West African slaves and British, Scottish and Irish settlers in Jamaica... The West African slaves and the British, Scottish, and Irish had interactions with each other for about 300 years!

In the simplest form --> English + West African Languages = Patwa/Patois. The majority of Jamaican slaves were of Igbo, Yoruba, and Akan ethnicity. (Jamaica: Nigeria & Ghana's Little Sister) Similar to many African languages, words are repeated to add emphasis. As a result, many of Jamaican Patwa words are directly, but not exclusively from the languages of the people of these ethnicities.

Currently, I'm researching the origins of many patwa words, and I've found many African words and many 100% Jamaican words (words containing no connections with any African words or English words). I'm guessing three hundred years was a long enough time for the Jamaican people to create some of their own vocabulary....

Igbo Language - Spoken Mostly in Nigeria
[Jamaican word] Awo/Awoh - from "ewo", "ewoh" (expression)"

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From http://www.igboenglish.com/igbo-nigerian-words-e.php IGBO DICTIONARY
"ewoh!- oh no!
ewo!, ewo!- exclamation of surprise"

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Thanks for visiting pancocojams.

Visitor comments are welcome.

A Carriacaou (Caribbean) Big Drum Song & Its Possible Igbo Translations

Edited by Azizi Powell

This pancocojams post features excerpted comments from a nairaland.com (Nigerian) discussion forum about the possible African sources & meanings of words that are found in a Carriacou Big Drum song.

This post also includes background information about the Big Drum song & dances. A video of the Big Drum song/dance that is referenced in is also featured in this post.

The content of this post is presented for historical, etymological, and cultural purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

Thanks to all those who are quoted in this post. Thanks also to all those who are featured in the video that is showcased in this post and thanks to the publisher of that video on YouTube.
-snip-
A participant in that nairaland.com discussion extensively quoted this 2014 pancocojams post http://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2014/09/temne-and-ibo-igbo-nation-dances-songs.html "Temne And Ibo (Igbo) Nation Dances & Songs From The Carriacou Big Drum songs and dances".

Click http://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2017/02/the-wo-woyo-yo-yo-lyrics-in-bob-marleys.html for the related pancocojams post "The "Woyo Wo Yo Yo Yo" Lyrics In Bob Marley's "Buffalo Soldiers" Song & Other Songs".

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BACKGROUND INFORMATION
From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carriacou
"Carriacou is an island of the Grenadine Islands located in the southeastern Caribbean Sea, northeast of Grenada and the north coast of South America. The name is derived from the Carib language Kayryouacou.

Geography
Carriacou is the largest island in the Grenada Grenadines. It is also the largest island in the Grenadine Islands (Vincentian and Grenadian Grenadines)...

Carriacou is home to 8,000 people. The capital city is Hillsborough, the only town or city on the island. The rest of the island settlements are very small villages."...

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From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_Drum
"Big Drum is a genre and a musical instrument from the Windward Islands. It is a kind of Caribbean music, associated mostly closely with the music of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Music of Guadeloupe, Carriacou in Grenada and in the music of Saint Kitts and Nevis...

The inhabitants of Carriacou perform the "Big Drum" or "Nation" dance which celebrates their West African ancestors that were brought to the island during slavery. These Big Drum dances are usually performed at "Maroons" village festivals or fetes, where food and drink are prepared. They can also be danced at wakes and tombstone feasts in honor of dead relatives or marriage ceremonies, tombstone raisings, fishing boat launchings and in the case of ill-health or ill-fortune.In each occasion, the main focus is twofold: remembering lineage and respecting ancestors. The music consists of singing and chanting typically joined by three drums, shakers and maracas. [5]"

****
SELECTED COMMENTS FROM http://www.nairaland.com/2216513/ibo-yoruba-speakers-me "Can Any Ibo or Yoruba Speakers Help Me?" March 25, 2015

[Pancocojams Editor: I've numbered these selected comments for referencing purposes only. Words given in bold font or in italics were written that way in those comments.]

Comment #1: Can Any Ibo or Yoruba Speakers Help Me? by Carriacou1985(f): 4:06pm On Mar 25, 2015
"I live in England and my Mother is from a small island in the Caribbean called Carriacou. Carriacou is known for holding onto many African traditions but of course after thousands of years these have probably changed from the African traditions brought by their ancestors.

It is known that the people on the island of Carriacou originate from the Ibo, Akan and Temme tribes. We have a tradition that has been past down from our ancestors brought to the island from the slave trade, known as the big drum dance, this is usually done for weddings, deaths ect, in order for the ancestors to bless the ceremony.

I am particularly interested in what we call the Ibo nation dance, a song they sing and dance to is called: Ibole Ibole woy yo

The lyrics are as follows:

Gongo banan plantain me wo yo
Ibole Ibole woy yo
Hele bu Legba wo yo

I wanted to know if any Ibo speakers know if this actually comes from the Nigerian Ibo language?
Just curious about understanding my culture better and hope someone can help, any answers will be appreciated.... Thanks in advance"

**
Comment #2: ezeagu(m): 9:15pm On Mar 25, 2015
"Hello Carriacou1985.

This is a stretch, but after reviewing the words and twisting them into something intelligible I've transliterated the words into what it could be in Igbo then I've given the English translation. You're correct about the amount of Igbo and Akan peoples to your island and the Leewards Islands. It's funny because Igbo people are also known to wear those imported 'madras' (or "tartan" ) cloths the ladies are wearing in your post.

So here are the proposed translations (question marks are unintelligible):

Igbo:
Gongo (?) Banana, Plantain mu ewoh yo!
Igbo lé! Igbo lé! Ewoh yo!
Hanile bú Legba ewoh yo - or - Hé lé bụ Legba ewoh yo!

English:
Gongo (?) my Bananas, Plantains, ewoh! (ewoh is an expression like 'oh my god', or 'lord god')
Igbo nation! Igbo nation! ewoh yo!
All of them go to Legba (vodou deity) ewoh - or - They are all Legba ewoh yo!

Conclusion: to me this is an offering to Papa Legba in the Igbo language of plantains and bananas possibly, from a brief search on the net, Papa Legba indeed is given offerings of sweet fruits including plantains and bananas. Vowels at the beginning and end of words often blend in Igbo so in 'me wo yo', the 'me' could be 'mu e[woh]' = 'mewoh', if you see what I mean.

Also, in Haiti (who also have Legba) there is a song of the Igbo nation called Ibo Lele.

Interesting. Hopefully this helps. By the way Ibo is the older (European) way of spelling Igbo just for future reference."

**
Comment #3: bigfrancis21(m): 9:48pm On Mar 25, 2015
"I do know that the dance was created in remembrance of their Igbo ancestors. In Haiti, they have a native dance done in remembrance of their Igbo ancestors called 'ibo lele'. There is also a drum popular in the caribbean used in creating beats and tune pattern according to the beat tune called 'ibo udu' drum.

On deep inspection of the lyrics, the lyrics look a lot Igbo. There are a lot of Igbo words in it such as he', 'bu', 'le', 'ewoh' (or 'awoh' as used in Jamaica - another area with a huge percentage of Igbo-descended peoples). 'Le' and 'ewoh' are Igbo words used for expression. If you watch Nigerian Nollywood movies that portray mostly Igbo culture, you would hear 'ewoh' a lot. Take for example, 'he has died. ewo!', 'i just bought a car. ewo!' I see a lot of 'wo' in the lyrics, probability elongated over the years to 'wo yo', as common with language evolution over time. Examples of 'le' in Igbo: nne m le (my mother le), O biala le (he/she has come le) etc.

Igbo Translation:
Gongo banan plantain me wo yo: goro banana na plantain m ooo (buy my banana and plantains oo)
Ibole Ibole woy yo: proper in modern Igbo orthography as: Igbo le Igbo le [e]wo oo = a chant mentioning the Igbo ancestors expressively.
Hele bu Legba wo yo: proper in modern igbo orthography as: he le bu Legba, [e]wo oo = this is Legba, ewo oo.

Coincidentally, 'he' is commomly spoken in southern igbo, where majority of Igbo slaves were taken from, for 'this thing', compared to 'ihe' used in upland Igboland.

'bu' is the Igbo word for 'is'.

The lyric is exceedingly similar to Igbo language. However, I'd like your interpretation of the lyrics in creole to be able to finally balance both meanings. And if both meanings match, this would be great evidence of the survival of the Igbo language in the Caribbean after over 300 years."

**
Comment #4: ezeagu(m): 10:57pm On Mar 25, 2015
"bigfrancis21:
Hele bu Legba wo yo: proper in modern igbo orthography as: he le bu Legba, [e]wo oo = this is Legba, ewo oo."

Coincidentally, 'he' is commomly spoken in southern igbo, where majority of Igbo slaves were taken from, for 'this thing', compared to 'ihe' used in upland Igboland."

[end of quote]

I was wondering about 'he le', sounded familiar. Do you also mean 'this is Legba' as in these are Legbas offerings?

Also, Carriacou1985, I think we can confirm that 'wo yo' is ewoh and that 'Ibole' is Igbo lé.

And I like that you also noticed Jamaicans say awoh. Cha may also be Igbo related."

**
Comment #5: Nobody: 11:07pm On Mar 25, 2015
"It does sound Igbo to me. Corrupted, but still possible to make some sense of.

But I suspect that as most Afro-Caribbean cultures are syncretic, some at least of the words could have come from somewhere other than Igboland.

Legba, for example, is a Beninios-Togolese deity, and not Igbo.

Ezeagu and Francis have attempted translations. This is my attempt (not too different from theirs).

Gongo banan plantain me wo yo (Ngwongwo banana na plantain mu-ee, woyo)
Ibole Ibole wo yo (Igbo le Igbo le, wo yo)
Hele bu Legba (He le bu Legba)

In English:

My loads of bananas and plantains, wo yo
Igbo le, Igbo le,wo yo
They are all [for] Legba.

Wo yo being a meaningless onomatopeic expression. Igbo chants typically use such expressions at the end of a line to keep the rhythm.

And 'le' being a commonly used interjection in the Southern Igbo axis. [See bigfrancis' comment for further explanation of the use of 'le']."
-snip-
The sentence in brackets is a part of the comment.

**
Comment #6: Nobody: 12:05am On Mar 26, 2015
Carriacou1985:
"Thank you Radoillo for you interpretation, I agree with you that the language in the song is possibly made up of different languages from the various tribe, so not sure why it is called Igbo nation dance."

[end of quote]

"It is probably called that because the original dance, tune and lyrics were imported by Igbo slaves. With the passage of time, other elements crept in (eg. the reference to Legba)."

**
Comment #7: by bigfrancis21(m): 3:03am On Mar 26, 2015
"@bold...From language similarities, the song can be definitely said to be Igbo language in line with its dedication to the Island's Igbo ancestors, with an adoption of 'Legba' (being a god) over time. Radoillo's rendition of its meaning seems to be the best. However, note that languages borrow words from each other, especially in Africa. Yoruba borrows from Hausa, Igbo borrows from Yoruba, Yoruba borrows from Igbo, Igbo borrows from Hausa, etc. It does not come as a surprise if ancient Igbo slave speakers adopted 'legba' into their lexicon, especially when a worship of the god was widespread on the Island.

And yes, there is an 'Ibo lele' song in Haiti also in remembrance of the Igbo slaves of Haiti. Haiti was one of the first non-african countries to recognize the republic of biafra (made up of mostly Igbo, Ibibio and Ijaw peoples with majority Igbo) in a symbolic extension of ancestral ties to the Igbo people. Jamaicans practice a form of Igbo native doctoring system called 'obeah' (obia/dibia in Igbo) but the belief system has a great part of it originating from the Akan of Ghana).

They also have an 'Ibo dance' in Haiti, I hear."

**
Comment #8: absoluteSuccess: 11:37am On Apr 06, 2015
..."wo in Yoruba is to move in one accord from place to place in celebration, it is iwo lu or iwode (e-war-day).

But if your pronounciation is Wo as in Woe, that stands for a shout of joy.

Legba is a Fon culture, the Fon ethnic group of Benin republic and Togo, go figure."
-snip-
This commenter was criticized for suggesting that words in that Caribbean song might have Yoruba sources Here's one of those comments.

**
Comment #9: by pazienza(m): 5:01pm On Apr 06, 2015
..."the Op specifically mentioned that the people have Beninoise influence, he never mentioned any thing about Yoruba, you are the one forcing the issue, cos as we know, Yoruba is but a tiny minority in Benin republic, the likely hood of Beninoise influence being Yoruba is so small, but that won't still stop you from pushing it now, would it?
-snip-
AbsoluteSuccess' entire response to this criticism follows:

**
Comment #10: absoluteSuccess: 5:16pm On Apr 06, 2015
"I am partly Fon, partly Yoruba.

I did not force anything...my post is as clear as noon. I am not telling you my conclusion or 'fabrication' as you put it is 'absolute truth'. I am wrong as you can see, but look at the thread and topic, it is open to both Yoruba and Igbo. The thread is not a trophy, but linguistic exercise.

Legba is shared between Fon and Yoruba, another example of such is Ofa (Ifa), Sango, Duduwa (Oduduwa), Gu (Ogun) and Sapata, (Jakuta). Elegba(ra) is Yoruba for devil or Esu, as the Yoruba would say "Ko b'esu b'egba".

I can't say I am right with my interpretation, I don't know what the song sounds like, but as to the written words, you can see I point the Yoruba aspect of the sounds out. I have greater material to offer the public, I don't know why I should be jammed in this duel."

**
Comment #11: bigfrancis21(m): 9:16pm On Apr 06, 2015
"absoluteSuccess:
You are absolutely right bruv, my approach was to call attention to dual nature of the song and before I say jack, it has become an ethnic recrimination as if I've stolen the Island of Comoros from world map. God! nairaland is nairaland indeed, every dot is fiercely contested. Yoruba is the second largest group in Benin Rep.

Unfortunately, yorubas were not among the slaves taken to Carriacou. Igbo, Akan and Temne slaves were mostly the ones moved to Carriacou. The op also confirmed this for himself. How the song would suddenly be Yoruba is ludicrous.

The fact that 'legba' is a borrowed word from Fon doesn't make the lyrics Yoruba. The word is a borrowed word from 'Fon'. It was called Ibo nation dance for a reason, not Yoruba nation dance. The same way you would want to hold on to 'legba', you've conveniently chosen to ignore 'ibo' that is all over the song? English language has borrowed several words from spanish, french and latin, that still doesn't stop it from being the language it is. And it acknowledges the fact that it borrowed some of its words. Radoillo, Ezeagu and I all acknowledged Legba is a borrowed word not from Yoruba but from Fon. How you conveniently choose to shorten elegbara to legba just to conveniently claim something not attributed to Yorubas is quite baffling.

Or maybe go ahead and twist some yoruba origin of the words 'unu'/'una' used in Jamaican patois/Nigerian pidgin, or 'awoh', or red ibo etc. used in Jamaica just to satisfy your insatiable quest."
-snip-
Big francis then extensively quotes my pancocojams post [link given above]

The last comment in this discussion thread features the YouTube video that is embedded below and asks is this the video that the OP (original poster) mentioned in his (or her) comment.

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SHOWCASE VIDEO: . Ibole Ibole Woy Yo (Ibo Nation Song)



Cultural Equity Published on Jul 29, 2013

Boula, Elias Mitchell; kòt drum, James "Laka" Moses; Anthony Douglas, foule
Chantwèl, Phyllis Duncan, with chak-chak

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