Monday, June 6, 2016

Brazilian Chorinho Music & Two Examples Of Afro- Brazilian Composer Pixinguinha's "Carinhoso"

Edited by Azizi Powell

This post provides information about Brazilian "Choro" music and also provides information about the early 20th century Afro-Brazilian composer Pixinguinha and showcases one of his most popular compositions - "Carinhoso".

Two YouTube sound files of "Carinhoso" are showcases in this post along with selected comments from one of those sound files' discussion threads.

The Portuguese and English translation of the lyrics for this song are also featured in this post.

The content of this post is presented for historical, cultural, entertainment, and aesthetic purposes.

All copyright remain with their owners.

Thanks to Pixinguinha for his musical legacy. Thanks to the other musicians who are featured in one of these sound files and thanks to all those who are quoted in this post. Thanks also to the publishers of these sound files on YouTube.

"Choro ("cry" or "lament"), popularly called chorinho ("little cry" or "little lament"), is an instrumental Brazilian popular music genre which originated in 19th century Rio de Janeiro. Despite its name, the music often has a fast and happy rhythm. It is characterized by virtuosity, improvisation and subtle modulations, and is full of syncopation and counterpoint. Choro is considered the first characteristically Brazilian genre of urban popular music. The serenaders who play choros are known as chorões."...

"Alfredo da Rocha Viana, Jr., better known as Pixinguinha...; April 23, 1897 – February 7, 1973) was a composer, arranger, flautist and saxophonist born in Rio de Janeiro. Pixinguinha is considered one of the greatest Brazilian composers of popular music, particularly within the genre of music known as choro. By integrating the music of the older choro composers of the 19th century with contemporary jazz-like harmonies, Afro-Brazilian rhythms, and sophisticated arrangements, he introduced choro to a new audience and helped to popularize it as a uniquely Brazilian genre. He was also one of the first Brazilian musicians and composers to take advantage of the new professional opportunities offered to musicians by the new technologies of radio broadcasting and studio recording. Pixinguinha composed dozens of choros, including some of the most well-known works in the genre such as "Carinhoso", "Glória", "Lamento" and "Um a Zero"."...

Pixinguinha was the son of musician Alfredo da Rocha Viana, a flautist who maintained a large collection of older choro scores and hosted frequent musical gatherings at his home. Pixinguinha learned to play the flute at home but soon became a pupil of Irineu de Almeida, composing his first piece at age 14 and making his first recording at age 16. In 1912 he began to perform in cabarets and revues in the Rio de Janeiro neighborhood of Lapa. He then became the flautist in the house orchestra at the Cine Rio Branco movie theater (silent films at that time were often accompanied by live music). In 1914 he joined with his friends João Pernambuco and Donga to form the group Caxangá, a group which gained considerable attention before it disbanded in 1919.[1]

Five years later in 1919 [correction? 1924], Pixinguinha, along with his brother China, Donga, João Pernambuco, and other prominent musicians, formed the revolutionary musical group Os Oito Batutas (The Eight Amazing Players).[2][3] The instrumental lineup was at first fairly traditional, dominated by a rhythm section of plucked strings: Pixinguinha on flute, plus guitars, cavaquinho, banjo cavaquinho, and hand percussion. Performing in the lobby of the Cine Palais movie theater, Os Oito Batutas soon become a more popular attraction than the films themselves.[4][5] Their repertoire was diverse, encompassing folk music from northeast Brasil, sambas, maxixes, waltzes, polkas, and "brasilian tangos" (the term choro was not yet established as a genre). The group appealed especially to the nationalistic desires of upper-class Brazilians who yearned for a homegrown, uniquely Brazilian musical tradition free from foreign influences. Os Oito Batutas became a sensation across Brasil, though they were not without controversy. Certain members of the white Rio elite were not happy with black men performing in venues for example.[6]

Os Oito Batutas, and Pixinguinha specifically, were the target of attacks reflecting anxieties about race and the influence of Europe and the United States on Brazilian music. The group, which consisted of both white and black musicians, performed mainly in upper-class venues where black musicians had previously been prohibited. Moreover, they were criticized ferociously by those who felt that Brazilian musical culture should reflect primarily its European roots and that a black musical ambassador was an embarrassment. Finally, Pixinguinha's compositional style and his incorporation of trumpets and saxophones was criticized as being corrupted by American jazz, which was then becoming popular via radio broadcasts.

After performing at a gig for the dance couple Duque and Gabi at the Assírio cabaret, they were discovered by the wealthy Arnaldo Guinle who sponsored their first European tour in 1921.[7] In Paris they served as ambassadors of Brazilian music, performing for six months at the Schéhérazade cabaret. Their tour was a complete success and Pixinguinha received much praise from many distinguished Parisian musical artists including the famed Harold de Bozzi.[8] Upon returning to Brazil, they toured to Buenos Aires where they made recordings for RCA Victor. It is in these recordings that the mature sound of Os Oito Batutas can be heard"...
Additional information about Pixinguinha is found in the comment section below.


Meu coração, não sei por quê
Bate feliz quando te vê
E os meus olhos ficam sorrindo
E pelas ruas vão te seguindo
Mas mesmo assim foges de mim

Ah, se tu soubesses
Como sou tão carinhoso
E o muito, muito que te quero
E como é sincero o meu amor
Eu sei que tu não fugirias mais de mim

Vem, vem, vem, vem
Vem sentir o calor dos lábios meus
À procura dos teus
Vem matar essa paixão
Que me devora o coração
E só assim então serei feliz
Bem feliz

Source: posted by Maria Teresa Delgado, 2015 in the discussion thread for this YouTube sound file (given as Example #1 below)

That blogger also wrote this comment:
Translation from Portuguese to English translation (Google Translate)


My heart, do not know why
Bate happy when he sees you
And my eyes are smiling
And the streets will follow you
But even then they run away from me

Oh, if you only knew
As I am so tender
And much, much I want you
And how sincere is my love
I know that you no longer run away from me

Come, come, come, come
Come feel the warmth of my lips
Looking for your
Come kill this passion
That devours me heart
And just like that then I will be happy
well happy

Commenter Maria Teresa Delgado's translated comment:
The lyrics of this song are incomparably romantic

Example #1: Pixinguinha Carinhoso

Antonio Mendes Ribeiro Uploaded on Jun 30, 2008

Autor de Carinhoso

Exqmple #2: Carinhoso - Pixinguinha

piccinini02 Uploaded on Apr 1, 2010

The most famous song by Pixinguinha and João de Barro, "Carinhoso", here played by Chiquinho do Acordeon and Altamiro Carrilho.
Selected comments from this sound file's discussion thread:
waldyrm, 2014
"a brazilian genius"

Arthur PrataBR, 2012
"música Brasileira que se perdeu no tempo e assim cada vez mais desvalorizada pelos mesmos de sua nacionalidade : \

[Google Translate from Portuguese to English] "Brazilian music that was lost in time and so increasingly undervalued by the same nationality: \"

Davi Medeiros, 2013
"O mestre dos mestre
Pixinguinha , um verdadeiro genio da nossa musica !"

[Google Translate from Portuguese to English]
"The master of the master
Pixinguinha, a true genius of our music!"

Gleison do Nascimento, 2013
"And those stupid musical critics estated this song wasn't an original brazilian one because it was influeced by the jazz. So what? Pxinguinha - an unforgettable genius of the genre and style. Happy 117º years old!"

Osório Thomaz, 2014
"Dear Gleison. This song is genuinely Brazilian, precisely because it is influenced by jazz, tango, samba, by the Portuguese folk songs and African rhythms. The most delicious of Brazil is to take foreign things borrowed and mix everything in our musical kitchen and come out with something even better.

Pixinguinha himself had no difficulty about it because he loved jazz.

In the 20s he mixed the music of Ernesto then Nazareh (which was then sold as Brazilian tango), Chiquinha Gonzaga and the first chorões (for foreign people: "chorões" are the musicians who plays "choros", a musical style like Carinhoso) with African rhythms and European styles and with the African American music. After this, a style giving rise genuinely Brazilian (The Brazil is the same mixture and it must be so, nationalism does not make sense here - we must to lern how to love ourselves but not to hate the foreign).

He got the major successes of the so-called golden age of Brazilian popular music, orchestrating "marchas de carnaval" (another brazilian style) and choros. He was the first conductor-arranger hired by a record company in Brazil. He was a professional musician when much of the most important musicians were amateurs (the main chorões were civil servants and made music in leisure time). Pixinguinha was primarily a researcher of music, always innovating and adding new elements in Brazilian music. He was often misunderstood, and only years later passed to give due weight to their inventions.

Pixinguinha was a child prodigy, playing cavaquinho ( a kind of ukele) at 12 and at 13 went to the euphonium and flute. Today he is recognized as the finest flautist in the history of Brazilian music. When he got older, he needs to stop playing flute and began to specialize in saxophone because he had not the necessary firmness and mouth. At 17, he recorded his first instrumentations, come to the next year writing his first compositions, nothing less than the pearls "Rosa" and "Por Que Sofres".

In 1922 he had an experience that significantly transforms his music. A millionaire sponsors a trip to Pixinguinha and his group "Os 8 Batutas" for a European tour. The Paris season that should be just a month lasts six and had to be stopped due to commitments already made in Brazil. In Europe Pixinguinha hangs contact with modern European music and American jazz, so fashionable in Paris.

If you want to get mad at the critics, no problem, after all most of them deserve it, but do not be angry with anyone who says that Pixinguinha received jazz influence. This is true, just listen to this version of "carinhoso" to feel the beat, the swing thar he uses in the flute, moreover, when he was to Europe, he had the chutzpah to make swing with flute, something that was not common in the jazz temples of that era.

He was a genius anywhere, even outside from Brazil and not have to pretend an alleged nationalist authenticity to be Brazilian. His ears got jazz, tango, samba and African rhythms like "maracatu" and his lips touched the flute and made Brazilian music. This is the Brazil that we love, just because it is open to all cultures and all peoples."

chris house
"What year was this ?

ChikowsBR, 2015
"+chris house No one knows for sure, but the most accurate history, says that he has composed the melody between 1916, and 1917. But just in 1928, after years hiding the song, he has recorded the instumental officially. The history says, that he hid the song, because the melody digress from the original proposal of the music style, called as "chorinho", getting more closer from something foreign, like an Jazz."

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