Thursday, March 19, 2015

Videos Of Jawbone Musical Instrument (Quijada) Performances In Peru

Edited by Azizi Powell

This post showcases five examples of Afro-Peruvian Quijada (jawbone; donkey rattle) music.

The content of this post is provided for cultural, entertainment, and aesthetic reasons.

All copyright remains with their owners.

Thanks to all those who are featured in these videos. Thanks also to all those who are quoted in this post, and thanks to the publishers of these videos on YouTube.

"The Quijada [Charrasga, or Jawbone in English] is a traditional Latin percussion instrument that is cleaned of tissue and dried so the teeth can loosen and act as a rattle. They are traditionally made from the jawbone of either a mule, horse, or donkey.[1] To play, a musician holds one half in one hand and strikes the other with either a stick or their hand; this causes the teeth to rattle against the bone creating a loud, untuned sound, original to this instrument.[2] It is used in music throughout most of Latin America, including Mexico, Peru, El Salvador, Ecuador, and Cuba.

Historical and Cultural Content
While it is used in most Latin American countries, the quijada gets it origin from the Africans that were brought to the Americas during the colonial era.[2] It is also believed that it was first introduced in Peru, making it an Afro-Peruvian instrument.[3] It is used in traditional and contemporary Latin music; an example is a song being played in Oaxaca, Mexico, using the Quijada to keep the beat for the "cancion". The quijada de burro is most commonly used at carnivals and religious festivals.[4] This instrument is one example of a mix of two different cultures, African and Indigenous, that created an instrument that gained value for the people of Latin America."

These examples are presented in chronological order based on their posting date on YouTube with the oldest dated examples given first.

Example #1: Quijada de Burro

Leonardo Santiago Uploaded on Dec 2, 2008

En una fiesta, en Ojitlán, Oaxaca, unos músicos veracruzanos tocaban unos sones veracruzanos, me llamó la atención el uso de la quijada de burro como "carraca" par acompañar la pieza. Grabado en 2007.

Google translate from Spanish to English, with my corrections to standard American English in brackets:
At a party in Ojitlán, Oaxaca, Veracruz musicians played a few Veracruz sones, I was struck using the jawbone of a donkey as [the percussive accompaniment] for that piece.. Recorded in 2007.


Samuel Su, Uploaded on Oct 15, 2009


Selected comments from that video's discussion thread:
Bongo Maniac, 2010
"Como se llama el instrumento que parece una caja?"

What is the name of the instrument that looks like a box?

Samuel Su, 2010
"El instrumento es peruano y se llama "cajita"

The instrument is Peruvian and is called [little box]

Milosnivok, 2011
"esa caja es instrumento basico del flamenco, resultado del sincretismo musical de la colonia; los españoles lo llaman "cajonete"o "cajón peruano", es una maravilla!"

that box is basic instrument of flamenco result of musical syncretism of the colony; Spaniards call "cajonete" or "cajon" is wonderful!

Mariano Laos, 2012
"El cajón peruano llego a España gracias a Paco de Lucia. Cuando el estuvo de gira en el Perú se quedo enamorado de la percusión del instrumento, conoció a Caitro Soto (uno de los mejores cajoneros peruano que ha tenido el Perú ademas de un gran compositor de música Afro-Peruana) , Caitro le regalo un cajón y Paco de Lucia lo adopto como instrumento de percusión para el Flamenco."

The Peruvian cajon came to Spain thanks to Paco de Lucia. When he toured Peru he [fell in love with that] percussion instrument, he met Caitro Soto (one of the best Peruvian drawers that Peru has had besides a great composer of Afro-Peruvian music), Caitro gave [him] a box [from] Paco de Lucia and [it was] adopted as a percussion instrument for Flamenco.

FrancoManna, 2013
"Una hermosura de música. Aguante la quijada de mula y la cajita. Aguante la musica del Perú!

[Beautiful] music. Keep alive the tradition of the quijada and the cajita. Keep the traditional music of Peru alive!

Example #3: La Quijada - Danza - Pinotepa de Don Luis.flv

Lingüinotas Uploaded on Mar 5, 2011

En el municipio de Pinotepa de Don Luis se representan diferentes danzas durante el carnaval, como La Quijada. El Centro de Estudios y Desarrollo de las Lenguas Indígenas documentó esta representación.

Google translate from Spanish to English with my changes in brakets:
In the town of Pinotepa de Don Luis different dances [are performed during] the Jawbone carnival. The Center For The Study and Development of the Indigenous Languages documented this representation.
Here's a comment written in this video's discussion thread in response to a question about the names of these dances:
Lingüinotas, 2011 in reply to Miguel Maldonado
"Las piezas que se interpretan en esta danza no tienen un nombre específico; al menos eso expresaron los músicos durante la entrevista. Gracias."

[Google translate from Spanish to English, with my changes to standard American English]
According to the musicians, these dances don't have any specific names.

Example #4: LALO IZQUIERDO: Toque de la Quijada

Luciano Bertoluzzi, Uploaded on Mar 30, 2011

LALO IZQUIERDO en el Museo Afro Peruano de Lima, Perú.
Demostrando el toque de La QUIJADA.
“10 Words That Can’t Be Translated Into English”
luisomem, 2012
"dar un toque" means "to give a ring". "toque" means "touch", but also "to play [a song, an instrument]", or simply "a ring, a sound".

Example #5: Pablo La Porta plays quijada de burro ,tama and d 'jembe

Pablo La Porta, Published on May 18, 2013

Click for Part I of a three part series about songs that include the verse "jawbone walk, jawbone talk/jawbone eat with a knife and fork."

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