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Friday, May 31, 2013

Kenyan High School High Jump Video & Its Soundtrack (Mr Israel -Young Man)

Edited by Azizi Powell

This post showcases the viral video of Kenyan high school high jumpers & a video of the song that was used as that video's soundtrack.

The content of this post is presented for cultural, entertainment, and aesthetic purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

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FEATURED VIDEOS

Kenyan High School High Jump (OFFICIAL)

Michael Stewart, Published on May 23, 2013

To donate / get involved visit: https://www.facebook.com/KenyanHighJump.

This is at a high school track meet in the Rift Valley of Kenya in the town of Mosoriot. February, 2013.

To run a marathon here: http://riftvalleymarathon.com/

If anyone watching this video wants to help get these athletes proper facilities. Please inbox me.

Song Credit: Mr. Israel-- Young Man

www.signingonline.com
www.runforlife.ca
My blog: urbanbunnyproductions.blogspot.com
-snip-
For more information about the program highlighted in this video, click http://mashable.com/2013/05/31/kenyan-high-school-high-jump/

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Young Man - Mr. Israel - Kalenjin Song



Kiptoo Steve Kisorio, Published on Jan 24, 2013

Mr. Isael Young Man - Kalenjin Song 2012
Posted and Edited By Steve Kisorio
IT Centre Eldoret
-snip-
Here's information about the Kalenjin people from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalenjin_people:
"The Kalenjin are a Nilotic ethnic group inhabiting the Rift Valley Province in Kenya. They are estimated to number a little over 4.9 million individuals as per the Kenyan 2009 census numbers.[2]The Kalenjin are believed to have migrated to their present location from the South Sudan region around 2,000 years ago.

Until the early 1950s, the Kenyan peoples now known as the Kalenjin did not have a common name; they were usually referred to as the 'Nandi-speaking tribes' by scholars and administration officials, a practice that did not immediately come to a halt after the adoption of the common name 'Kalenjin' (cf. Evans-Pritchard 1965).

In the late 1940s and the early 1950s, several Nandi-speaking peoples united to assume the common name 'Kalenjin', a Nandi expression meaning I say (to you). Due to this effort, the peoples were transformed into a major ethnic group in Kenya. The adoption of the name Kalenjin also involved a standardisation of the different dialects of Nandi."...

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Thanks to all those who are featured in these videos and thanks to the sponsors of that athletic program.

Thanks for visiting pancocojams.

Visitor comments are welcome.

Thursday, May 30, 2013

Arrow - Hot Hot Hot (sound file, video, lyrics)

Edited by Azizi Powell

This post showcases Arrow's 1980s Soca hit song "Hot Hot Hot".
Information about Arrow is also provided in this post.

The content of this post is presented for cultural, entertainment, and aesthetic purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

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INFORMATION ABOUT ARROW
From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arrow_%28musician%29
"Alphonsus Celestine Edmund Cassell MBE (16 November 1949[1] – 15 September 2010) was a calypso and soca musician who performed under the stage name Arrow, and is regarded as the first superstar of soca from Montserrat.[2]...

In 1982, Cassell began working with arranger Leston Paul, and, with his Multi National Force band, recorded the album Hot Hot Hot, the title track, "Hot Hot Hot", becoming his first pan-Caribbean hit and the biggest selling soca hit of all time.[2] It was adopted as the theme song of the 1986 FIFA World Cup in Mexico...

Cassell co-headlined Bermuda's Soca '96 festival, and continued to regularly release albums. In 1988, he was given the Living Legends award by the organizers of the Caribbean Song Festival and the Bahamas Tourist Board.[2]...

Cassell continued to be much in demand in the Caribbean. He last performed at the Cricket World Cup 2007 opening ceremonies with Shaggy, Byron Lee and Kevin Lyttle."

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LYRICS - HOT HOT HOT
(Alphonsus Celestine Edmund Cassell MBE)

olay olay olay olay olay olay olay olay

feeling hot hot hot
feeling hot hot hot
feeling hot hot hot
feeling hot hot hot

my mind's on fire
my soul's on fire
feeling hot hot hot
party people
all around me
feeling hot hot hot
what to do on a night like this
music sweet I can't resist
we need a party song
so with a rum bum bum
let me rum bum bum bum

CHORUS
olay olay olay olay olay olay olay olay
let me rum bum bum bum
let me rum bum bum bum
feeling hot hot hot
feeling hot hot hot

see people rocking
yeah people jamming
feeling hot hot hot
keep the spirit
come on let's do it
feeling hot hot hot
hands in the air
celebration time
the music can't erase you mind
we have this party song
a fundamental jam
so we can rum bum bum bum
yeah we rum bum bum bum

CHORUS

people in the party hot hot hot
people in the party hot hot hot
people in the party hot hot hot
people in the party hot hot hot

Source: http://www.lyricsondemand.com/a/arrowlyrics/hothothotlyrics.html

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SHOWCASE EXAMPLES OF "HOT HOT HOT" BY ARROW
Example #1: Hot Hot Hot - Arrow (Soca)

rasmusbrockmichelsen• Uploaded on Jun 5, 2008
Be happy
-snip-
Here are two comments from this sound file's viewer comment thread http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xN9lUzaV4uQ
[In response to a commenter writing that this was a Buster Poindexter song:
"...it's the other way around Arrow first then Buster Poindexter did his own remake."
-zk0101, 2008
**
PROPER CHUNEEE
-l2onniel, 2009
-snip-
"Chune" is a Caribbean patois way of writing "tune".

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Example #2: Arrow, HOT! HOT! HOT!


FramebyFrameJa, Uploaded on Sep 18, 2010
www.framebyframejm.tv.

A selection of performances by Arrow, Alphonsus Celestine Edmund Cassell, MBE, from the 10th anniversary of the St. Kitts Music festival, and The 2006 Air Jamaica Jazz and Blues Festival, Montego Bay, Jamaica, where he participated in celebrating his friend's, Byron Lee, 50th anniversary in music.

Arrow, November 16, 1949 -- September 15, 2010, Montserrat.
Thanks for keeping the party going HOT! HOT! HOT!

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Thanks to Arrow for his musical legacy.

Thank you for visiting pancocojams.

Visitor comments are welcome.

Examples Of The Children's Cheer "Rock The Boat"

Edited by Azizi Powell

This is Part II of a two part series on the 1974 Disco song "Rock The Boat" and children's "Rock The Boat" cheers.

This post features video & text examples of "Rock The Boat" cheers and also provides some comments about the structure of those cheers.

Part I showcases the song "Rock The Boat" as recorded by The Hues Corporation (1973).

Click http://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2013/05/the-hues-corporation-rock-boat-video.html for Part I.

The content of this post is presented for cultural, entertainment, and aesthetic purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

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THE STRUCTURE OF "ROCK THE BOAT" CHILDREN'S CHEERS
"Rock The Boat" children's cheers demonstrate the influence that foot stomping cheers have had on the structure of cheers that are performed by children's cheerleading squads & children's athletic teams. These cheers are composed using a call & response structure that is quite different from the older "mainstream" "Go Team Go" type of cheerleader cheers.

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FEATURED VIDEOS
(These videos are posted in chronological order with the oldest video posted first.)

Video #1: Aniya Rocks The Boat :-)


ti55, Uploaded on Mar 16, 2008
-snip-
This is an example of the "She Slides" sub-category of "Rock The Boat" cheers.

A transcription of this video is given as Example #1 below.

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Video #2: ROCK THE BOAT



RainbowBrite895, Uploaded on Jul 3, 2008

haha this is my softball team doing one of our cheers
-snip-
Examples of cheers from this video's viewer comment thread are found below. Because those examples are very similar to the cheer that is chanted in that video, I didn't transcribe that video. This "Rock The Boat" cheer is from that cheer's "Bang Bang Choo Choo Train" sub-category. It appears from my review of these cheers that examples include either the "She slides" or "the Bang Bang" verses, however there may be examples of this cheer that include both of these verses.

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Video #3: Bulldogs Rock the Boat (cheer)



mlisa73, Uploaded on Dec 23, 2011

The girls cheering.
-snip-
This cheer is from the "bang bang choo choo train" category of
"Rock The Boat" cheers. A sub-category of that cheer includes the line "bang bang and pull that spirt". Examples of these cheers are found below.

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Keira & aliyah rock the boat cheer



shawn cavanagh, Published Sep 27, 2012
-snip-
This is an example of the "She Slides" sub-category of "Rock The Boat" cheers.

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EXAMPLES OF "ROCK THE BOAT" CHEERS
(These examples are from the featured videos presented above or their viewer comment threads. They aren't presented in any particular order.)

Example #1: ROCK THE BOAT
Rock the boat. Don't tip it over.
Rock the boat. Don't tip it over.
Hey, Aniya. "Hey what?"
Hey, Aniya. "Hey what?"
Can you rock the boat? "No way."
Can you rock the boat?! "Ok."
She slides. She slides. She do The Butterfly.
She dips. She dips. She shakes her little hips!
-ti55, Mar 16, 2008, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P9QuTsAtQPY
-snip-
This is my transcription of the video given above as "Video #1". This cheer is composed using the traditional foot stomping cheer structure. The "rock the boat/don't tip it over" line is a clear indication that this cheer was heavily influenced by The Hues Corporations' 1974 record "Rock The Boat".

Notice that the group (or an individual) commands (or asks) one person to do something, and that person's first response is to refuse. However, when the group (or an individual) commands (or asks) that same person to do the same thing a second time, that person complies. This pattern marks this cheer as an example of what I refer to as a "command/refusal"* type of [dance style] foot stomping cheer, although the actual pattern is "command, refusal, command, compliance".

*I previously referred to this sub-category of dance style cheers as "command compliance". I changed that term because "command/refusal" highlights the soloist's initial act of refusal.

[Added 11/11/2016]
It’s possible that this command/refusal portion of this pattern (the soloist initially refusing to perform when she is first commanded to do) so may be evidence that African American culture devalues people who are show-offs. Therefore, the person has to be persuaded to perform. But (in addition to that possibility) I think that command/compliance patterns in children’s foot stomping show highlight the value that is placed on “being strong”, “being your own person”, and not “This refusal to jump hoops just because someone tells you to”. Because she Initially refuses to “show me how you rock” or “show me how you get down” (to quote command lines from two of this sub-set of foot stomping cheers), the soloist conveys that “nobody can tell me what to do”. I’ll do what I want when I want to”. Read more of my comments about this subject under Example #4 below.

Also, it should be noted that in command/refusal cheers, the soloist sometimes refuses to do what is commanded or asked of her without giving a reason. In other command/compliant cheers the soloist gives an excuse. For example, in a cheer entitled "You Ain't Goin Nowhere" that I collected in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in 2002, and (the same cheer) in 2008, the soloist says she's too shy, before going ahead and doing what is asked of her the second time that she is asked.

It occurs to me that this non-compliant attitude may also be shown in the belligerent responses to the hawk in the 1922 rhyme “Chicka Ma Chicka Ma Craney Crow” and to the mother/teacher in the United States/Caribbean rhymes that I call “Children, Children”.
-snip-
[End of addition]

"The Butterfly" is a dance of Jamaican origin that was picked up & integrated into American R&B/Hip Hop dance repertoire of the 1990s. A number of mainstream cheers include a referent to doing "The Butterfly". There are also some references to "The Butterfly" dance in certain foot stomping cheers.

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Example #2: ROCK THE BOAT
I learned

"Hey ____!"
"Hey what?"
"Hey ____!"
"Hey what?"
"Can you rock the boat?"
"I might"
"Can you rock the boat?"
"Alright!"
"Rock the boat, Don't tip it over,
Rock the boat, Don't tip it over"
-TheKaitybugs, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P9QuTsAtQPY, 2012

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Example #3: ROCK THE BOAT
Rock the boat and don’t tip it over
Rock the boat and don’t tip it over
My name is ___
(rock the boat)
I cheer for bulldogs
(rock the boat)
And if I didn’t*
(rock the boat)
it goes a little something like this
bang bang get it get it
Ah!
And pull that spirit.

[continue with the next girl who says the same words except her name]
-mlisa73, Uploaded on Dec 23, 2011, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PKGOoqGcWvw
-snip-
This is my transcription of the cheer given in Video #3.
* "And if I didn't" is usually given as “and when I do). Those words make more sense in the context of this cheer.

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Example #4: ROCK THE BOAT
this is how we do it at my school:

rock the boat dont tip it over
rock the boat dont tip it over
my name is __
yeah!
im feelin fine!
yeah!
u mess with me
yeah!
ill blow ur mind
so bang bang choo choo train
u look at me and i do my thang
no recces pieces no butter cup
i kno karate i kno kung fu
u mess with ill mes with u!

i kno its tottaly off to wat everyone else is sayin but thats wat we sing on the bus all the time.
-slimeshady100, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P9QuTsAtQPY, 2010

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Example #4: ROCK THE BOAT
[Editor's note: I assigned numbers for the lines to provide an text analysis of this example. The group's lines are indicated by "G" in brackets. The soloist's lines are indicated by "S" in brackets. The entire group's lines are indicated by G&S in brackets.

we do it like this for cheerleading

1. rock the boat dont tip it over [G&S]
2. rock the boat dont tip it over [G&S]
3. hey_____, [G]
4. hey what? [S]
5. hey_____, [G]
6. hey what? [S]
7. can u rock the boat? [G]
8.no way [S]
9. can u rock the boat? [G]
10. Ok [S]
11. she slides she slides *
12. she gets on a horse and rides,
13. she dips she dips,
14. she shakes her little hips
15. she wants you and you
16. to rock the boat too
-Brooke Esposito, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P9QuTsAtQPY, 2011

*It seems that this line until the end of the cheer might be chanted only by the Group but those lines might also be chanted by the Group plus the soloist.

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The earliest dated examples that I've collected for "Rock The Boat" cheers are from the 1980s. One significant difference between traditional & some mainstream "Rock The Boat" cheers is whether the group commands (or demands that the soloist) do something or whether the group asks the soloist to do something. If that action is demanded of the soloist or asked of her creates a different tone for those cheers and also conveys an entirely different cultural message. It seems to me that these are crucial differences.

In traditional examples of these cheers, the fact that the girl initially refuses to do what is demanded of her may demonstrate that a value is placed on being independent and not (immediately) acceding to orders (or expectations?) that others have for you. In contrast, in mainstream examples of these cheers, the soloist's refusal to do what is asked of her comes across as belligerent.

It's possible that "Can you rock the boat" could be interpreted as "Are you able to rock the boat?" However, in the context of that cheer, the soloist's surly answer of "No way" doesn't mean "There's no way that I'm able to do that action that you ask me can I do." Instead, "No way" means that "There's no circumstances which would make me [no reason why] I would do what you ask. The difference between that and the traditional meaning may be subtle, but I think that a difference does exist.

That said, I'm not certain that the girls who chanted/chant the traditional "demanding" version of this cheer and other "command/compliance" cheers consciously recognize the message that the cheer conveys with those "command" or demand and refusal to comply lines.

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This concludes Part II of this series.

My thanks to all those who are featured in these videos and all those whose cheer examples are presented in this post.

Thank you to for visiting pancocojams.

Visitor comments are welcome.

Wednesday, May 29, 2013

The Hues Corporation- Rock The Boat (video & information)

Edited by Azizi Powell

This is Part I of a two part series on the 1974 Disco song "Rock The Boat" and children's "Rock The Boat" cheers.

This posts showcases the song "Rock The Boat" as recorded by The Hues Corporation (1973).

Part II features examples of "Rock The Boat" cheers.

Click http://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2013/05/examples-of-childrens-cheer-rock-boat.html for Part II of this series.

The content of this post is presented for cultural, entertainment, and aesthetic purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

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SHOWCASE VIDEO - Rock The Boat 1974 Hues Corporation


Jasminne2009·Uploaded on Aug 18, 2009

Click http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dndAXxqJbc0 for this video's summary which includes the lyrics for this song. Those lyrics include this refrain:
-snip-
Here's information about The Hues Corporation's "Rock The Boat" from their Wikipedia page http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rock_the_Boat_(Hues_Corporation_song)
"Rock the Boat" is a disco song by the group Hues Corporation in 1974. "Rock the Boat" was written by Waldo Holmes, who also wrote the Blacula songs.

"Rock the Boat" was first featured on the Hues Corporation's 1973 album, Freedom For The Stallion (an edited version later appeared on certain editions of the band's follow-up album, 1974's Rockin' Soul).[1] and was released as the second single from the album in early 1974 to follow-up Stallion's title song, which had peaked at #63 on the Hot 100. Initially, "Rock the Boat" appeared as though it would flop, as months went by without any radio airplay or sales activity. Not until the song became a disco/club favorite in New York did Top 40 radio finally pick up on the song, leading the record to finally enter the Hot 100 and zip up the chart to #1 in July 1974. The record also reached the top 10 in the United Kingdom (number 6). It is a heavy airplay favorite on oldie and adult-contemporary stations today
-snip-
This write up doesn't mention that a large number of children's cheerleader cheers are titled "Rock The Boat" and have their source in the Hue Corporation' "Rock The Boat" song. The "Rock The Boat" cheers that I've collected online use a foot stomping cheer structure, but are probably not performed with the foot stomping activity that is the same as historically Black Greek lettered organizations' steppin foot work, (individual handclaps, and sometimes also (individual) body patting. Examples of those cheers are featured in Part II of this pancocojams series.

Click http://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2013/05/an-overview-of-foot-stomping-movement.html for a pancocojams post on foot stomping cheers.

Notice that one of the dance movements that the Hues Corporation does while singing "Rock The Boat" is to lean to the side and smoothly (gently) swing their hips from side to side. That "rock the boat" dance movement became part of many young African Americans' mid 1970s R&B dance repertoire and is still done when people want to perform "old school" dances.

In contrast, here's a link to a video of the 2011 Hip-Hop dance [crank that]* "rock dat boat"
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9uWyB6BgISs

*"Crank that" is often used in front of the name of a Hip-Hop dance. It means "do that [dance name] dance" or "start doing that [dance name] dance".

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RELATED LINKS
Click http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WP0S2J4_Q94 for a 1973 Reggae song entitled "Don't Rock My Boat" by Bob Marley. I'm not sure if it's a coincidence that the Hues Corporation song & Bob Marley's song had such similar titles.

Click http://www.allmusic.com/song/dont-rock-my-boat-mt0000009939 for information on that Bob Marley song including the fact that Bob Marley recorded three different versiond of "Don't Rock My Boat, the first one being in 1968.
**
Click http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A5AAcgtMjUI for a video of the 2001 R&B song "Rock The Boat" by Aaliyah. That song's tune & lyrics are completely different from The Hues Corporations tune & lyrics. A number of dance routines are based on the choreography that Aaliyah did in that video.

Click http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rock_the_Boat_(Aaliyah_song) for information about this record.

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This concludes Part I of this series.

My thanks to The Hues Corporation & the other artists mentioned for their musical legacies.

Thank you to for visiting pancocojams.

Visitor comments are welcome.

Tuesday, May 28, 2013

New Orleans Buck Jumping (information & videos)

Edited by Azizi Powell

TBC Brass Band performing Donny Hathaway's 'This Christmas' at the Big Nine 2009 Second Line Parade



BigRedCotton, Uploaded on Dec 24, 2009

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This is Part II of a two part series on the 19th century dance known as the "buck & wing", and the "buck jumping" dances that derived from it.

This post features information about & several videos of buck jumping.

Part I provides information & video demonstrations of buck & wing, buck dancing, and several wing movements in tap dancing.

Click http://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2013/05/the-pigeon-wing-buck-wing-and-buck.html for Part I of this series.

The content of this post is presented for folkloric, entertainment, and aesthetic purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owner.

Disclaimer: I'm not a dancer or a dance historian. My comments are shared in the interest of eliciting more information & opinions about this subject.

Update: October 12, 2014
Neither "buck dancing" nor "buck jumping" as described in this series is the same as (majorette) "bucking". That dance movement consists of pelvic thrusts (pops) that are done within a dance routine.

Click http://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2014/04/stand-battles-changing-meaning-of.html for more information about and examples of majorette "bucking".

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INFORMATION ABOUT BUCK JUMPING
"Buck jumping" is a rhythmic, percussive style of dancing that emphasizes fast foot work. This style of dancing is closely associated with members of New Orleans Social Aid & Pleasure Clubs & New Orleans second line paraders.

"Buck jumping" is derived from 19th century African American originated "buck & wing" dancing. Buck jumping is closely related to- if not the same as- the 21st century HIp-Hop dances known as footwork, gangsta walkin, jookin, buckin, and other terms. Click http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gangsta_Walking for information about these Hip Hop dances. That Wikipedia article traces the origin of "gangsta walkin" and suggests that dance may have "a New Orleans connection. Early gangsta-walking in Memphis was often called "buck jumping", and "buck jumping" was another name for second-lining in New Orleans.”...

Here's some information about "buck jumping" & New Orleans Social Aid & Pleasure Clubs from http://nolabounce.com/?p=4499 "Second Line Jump: New Orleans Rap And Brass Band Music" By Matt Miller; September 27, 2010
"The number of brass bands has expanded along with the proliferation of “second Line” clubs, so-called “social and pleasure” organizations which hire bands for parades. These clubs stage parades on Sunday afternoons throughout the second line “season” (which spans much of the Fall, Winter and Spring), often to celebrate the anniversary of the club’s founding. These second line parades, along with the “jazz funerals” and Mardi Gras parades that often define New Orleans in the national imagination, serve as a central venue for brass bands and play a key role in disseminating and reinforcing a commonly-held musical sensibility. To outsiders, second line parades might seem like a purely celebratory event, but they can also channel more destructive energies.

The bands are often joined by a rowdy group of spontaneous participants (often teenagers or young men) who contribute highly expressive dance and ad-hoc music-making. “Buck jumping,” an individual dance form associated with both brass bands and local rap, is one of the many features of New Orleans’s musical culture that in concept and nomenclature can be traced back to the 19th century and the era of slavery.”...
-snip-
That article was reformatted to increase its readability.

Here's information about the New Orleans Social & And Pleasure Clubs from http://www.neworleansonline.com/neworleans/multicultural/multiculturaltraditions/socialaid.html
"Strutting and jumping and high-stepping underneath their decorated parasols, blowing whistles and waving feathered fans, the African-American members of New Orleans’ social aid and pleasure clubs are the organizers, originators, and sponsors of the second line parades for which the city is famous. The brass band that follows the parade’s grand marshal and club members, who are always dressed in coordinated suits and classy hats, blast out exuberant rhythms to propel everyone’s high-spirited march through the streets. The club and brass band are known as the first line, and the audience that forms behind the parade to join in the festivities is the second, hence the term second line parade.

African-American social aid and pleasure clubs aren’t just about parading, however. They grew out of organizations of the mid to late 1800s called benevolent societies, which many different ethnic groups in New Orleans formed. Serving a purpose that today has largely been supplanted by insurance companies, benevolent societies would help dues-paying members defray health care costs, funeral expenses, and financial hardships. They also fostered a sense of unity in the community, performed charitable works, and hosted social events. Benevolent societies always had strong support in the African-American population, and some scholars trace the roots of the African-American societies back to initiation associations of West African cultures from where the majority of New Orleans blacks originally came."
-snip-
The members of New Orleans Social Aid & Pleasure Clubs (SAPC) & the second line paraders certainly strut, and they may also jump. But their dancing is a particular fast hopping kind of jumping, sometimes with leg lifts and squatting, and more that typifies "buck jumping". It seems to me that the brass bands perform the high stepping more than the SAPC members or the second liners. Click http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fwGxSV5-cR0 for a video of such a brass band in a SAPC parade.

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FEATURED VIDEOS
These videos are posted in chronological order with the videos with the oldest dates posted first.

Video #1: New Orleans Secondline Dancing



SneakinSal, Uploaded on Dec 25, 2006

Secondline dancing on a porch on Washington Avenue, New Orleans. New Generation Social Aid & Pleasure Club parade, December 10, 2006.

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Video #2: Sudan 2008 Second Line featuring Rebirth



Posted by BigRedCotton, December 03, 2008
-snip-
Notice the dancer crawling under the legs of another dancer. I've seen videos in which that same dance movement in some traditional Senegalese dances. I've also noticed that movement in performed in certain videos of African American Jazz dancing (swing dancing) and in videos of African American "krumping".

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Video #3: The Hot 8 Brass Band with Ladies And Men of Unity -'Poppa Was A Rolling Stone'



Uploaded by BigRedCotton on Apr 6, 2009

Ladies and Men of Unity Social Aid and Pleasure Club 2nd Annual Second Line Uptown

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Video #4: Divine Ladies Social Aid & Pleasure Club 2009 Annual Parade



Uploaded by BigRedCotton on May 17, 2009
-snip-
Notice the "wing"* leg movements (leg lifts) that are done in this video (such as at 1:54-1:57; 2:50-2:53, and 6:27-6:32).

*derived from the buck & the wing dance

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Video #5: Buck-jumping dance-off on Oak St. during the Pigeon Town Steppers Easter Second Line



Lisa Pal, Uploaded on Apr 5, 2010

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RELATED LINK
Click this page of my jambalayah website for more New Orleans Social Aid & Pleasure Club & Brass Band videos http://www.jambalayah.com/node/1145.

Note that I included comments about the source for the word "buck" in buck jumping. I wrote that that term came from a description of deer jumping. I'm much less convinced of that information now & wish that I could retract that statement. However, for some reason, that page won't accept any edits.

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This concludes Part II of this series.

Thanks to those whose comment I quoted. Thanks also to those who are featured in these videos, and thanks to the publishers of these videos on YouTube.

Thank you for visiting pancocojams.

Visitor comments are welcome.

The Pigeon Wing, The Buck & Wing, and Buck Dancing, Part I (information & videos)

Edited by Azizi Powell

This is Part I of a two part series on the 19th century dance known as the "buck & wing", and "buck jumping" dances that derived from it.

Part I provides information about & video demonstrations of buck & wing, buck dancing, and several wing movements in tap dancing.

Part II of this series features information & comments about "buck jumping", a style of dancing that is closely associated with members of New Orleans Social Aid & Pleasure Clubs & New Orleans second line paraders.

Click http://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2013/05/new-orleans-buck-jumping-information.html for Part II.

The content of this post is presented for folkloric, entertainment, and aesthetic purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owner.

Disclaimer: I'm not a dancer or a dance historian. My comments are shared in the interest of eliciting more information & opinions about this subject.

Update: October 12, 2014
"Buck dancing" ("buck jumping") as described in this post isn't the same as the contemporary African American dance movement called "bucking". "Bucking" is probably a new name for the very old African originated dance move that consist of pelvic pops.

It appears that the Houston, Texas group X-Treme Motion was the first to popularize "bucking" on television. That group competed on the 2010 television show "America's Best Dance Crew. Here's a link to a January 4, 2010 video of X-Treme motion and the publisher's Trecia KneCole Fan Page's summary statement:
"X-Treme Motion Dance Crew is a Houston Based Crew from "The Motion of the Ocean" Majorettes at Texas Southern University.. They specialize in Hip-Hop, Jazz, Ballet, Funky Jazz, and Modern. But, Showcasing and bring their own dance style called "Bucking" to the forefront."
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=apu78i3-K1s.

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INFORMATION ABOUT BUCK & WING AND BUCK DANCING
These comments are posted in no particular order & are given numbers for referral purposes only.

Notice the different descriptions in these quotes about what a "wing" was. My take on these descriptions was that the wing started out as flapping the arms and minstrelsy & vaudeville changed it to flapping a leg.
Comment #1: Tap roots: The Early History Of Tap Dancing
by Mark Knowles (McFarland & Company Jefferson, North Carolina May 2002)
Page 44
"Old style buck dancing consisted mainly of stamps and chugs, sometimes embellished with toe bounces. The origins of buck dancing are unclear, but sources indicate that it has many elements in common with the Cherokee stomp dance. There is conjecture that it is also related to the ceremonial dances in which Indians braves would put on the antlers and skin of a male deer...

One of the most popular buck dances among African American slaves was the pigeon wing (also called the chicken wing), When performing the pigeon wing, dancers strutted like a bird and scrapped their feet, while their arms bent at the sides, were flapped like wings. When interviewed for the Virginia’s Writers Project, ex-slave Fannie Berry described the pigeon wing thus:
"Dere was cuttin’ de pigeon wings-dat was flippin’ you arms an legs roun’ an’ holdin ya neck stiff like a bird do.” "

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Comment #2: Lynne Fauley Emery's 1989 book Black Dance: From 1619 to Today(page 90) [revised Feb. 26, 2017]:
"The Pigeon Wing appears to have been performed over a large geographical area. References were made to the Pigeon Wing from South Carolina to Texas, and from Indiana to Mississippi. Horace Overstreet, of Beaumont, Texas, remembered the dance by another name. Overstreet stated that on Christmas and July 4, a big dance would be held on their plantation. '...jus' a reg'lar old breakdown dance. Some was dancin' Swing de Corner, and some in de middle de floor cuttin' de chicken wing.

Fannie Henry described the Pigeon Wing as follows: "Dere was cuttin' de pigeon wings-dat was flippin' yo arms an' legs roun' an' holdin' ya' neck stiff like a bird do."

The Pigeon Wing and the Buck dance appear as authentic dances of the Negro on the plantation, much before they were picked up for the minstrel shows and billed as the "Buck and Wing"."

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Comment #3: From http://www.streetswing.com/histmain/z3buckw1.htm
"Buck dancing is a pre-tap dance routine that was done by Minstrels and Vaudeville performers in the mid nineteenth century portraying the African American males known as “bucks.” Originally, the pigeon wing step (foot shaking in the air) was a big part of this early folk dance but later separated when variations began such as the shooting out of one leg making a “Wing”....

The legendary dancer “Master Juba”* did a buck and a wing in the 1840s. It was said that the first buck & wing routine was performed on the New York stage in 1880 by James McIntrye as well as inventing the “Syncopated Buck & Wing”…

The Buck and Wing was adapted to the Minstrel stage from the recreational clogs and shuffles of African Americans...

Buck: Rhythm and Percussive. Originally just a stamping of the feet to interpret the music which later became much more refined when mixed with the Jig and Clog. Buck dancers danced alone and in a small area of space...

Flatfoot is mostly Buck dancing... but much more laid back in which the soles of the feet stay very close to the floor and without the soles of the dancers’ shoes making much noise, nor stomping. The flatfoot dancer seems relaxed and carefree while he or she dances, even though the feet are constantly moving. If you can imagine a “soft shoe” Buck dance. This dance is a spot dance (done in place) with the arms moving only slightly to flow with the dancer’s balance giving them a fluid look. If more than one person wants to dance at the same time, they each dance individually, i.e. “freestyle”, but still adhere to the rhythm of the music being played...

Pigeon wing (1830s) was originally just shaking one foot in the air...
-snip-
*”Master Juba” was Black. My assumption is that James McIntrye was also Black.

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Comment #4: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clogging
"Solo dancing (outside the context of the big circle dance) is known in various places as buck dance, flatfooting, hoedown, jigging, sure-footing, and stepping…One source states that buck dancing was the earliest combination of the basic shuffle and tap steps performed to syncopated rhythms in which accents are placed not on the straight beat, as with the jigs, clogs, and other dances of European origin, but on the downbeat or offbeat, a style derived primarily from the rhythms of African tribal music.[16]

Buck dancing was popularized in America by minstrel performers in the late 19th century. Many folk festivals and fairs utilize dancing clubs or teams to perform both Buck and regular clogging for entertainment.

Traditional Appalachian clogging is characterized by loose, often bent knees and a "drag-slide" motion of the foot across the floor, and is usually performed to old-time music."
-snip-
That Wikipedia page also includes theories about the source of the word “buck”.

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FEATURED VIDEOS
Video #1:Thomas F. DeFrantz: Buck, Wing and Jig



Duke University,Published on Mar 26, 2012

How did dances on slave plantations develop into the Charleston and the Kid n' Play? DeFrantz demonstrates three traditional African American social dances.

Learn more. Thomas F. DeFrantz discusses dance, technology and African American culture.
http://today.duke.edu/2012/03/thomasdefrantz
-snip-
This demonstration video focuses on three social dances that emerged in the 19th century and became very important.

Here are excerpts of Thomas F. DeFrantz's comments:
Buck, wing, and jig are dances were developed by African Americans outside of the eyes of the clergy and the White slave owners who were only interested in dances that could be tied to Christian movements...

Buck dances were forms that were very very percussive, and weighted down into the foot.
All these dances are about rhythm and percussion.

Wing dances are very important and have a lot more visibility in the 20th century and on into the 21st century. Wing dances are dances were you literally flap parts of your body like ..as if they were wings. (shown flapping; spreading wide] his arms and his legs]...So you can see how 150 years later in the 21st century the wing dances could become popping.

Jig dances are dances that have lots and lots of energy and lots of velocity. So if you put jigs and wings together we get something that we might recognize as footwork or something we might recognize as the Charleston or the Kid n Play. Or if we go back to the wing, we’d get something that we might have known or heard of called The Butterfly."
-snip-
Here’s a portion of the comment that I posted on this video's viewer comment thread:
“Prior to viewing this video, I hadn't connected historically Black Greek letter fraternity & sorority steppin' to 19th century Buck dances. Buck dancing seems also to be a source of foot stomping routines that once were informal recreational activities for (mostly) Black girls & now are being incorporated into some pre-university mainstream cheerleading routines. Those 2 movement arts also may incorporate body patting (pattin Juba).”

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Video #2: Buck Dancing at Mabry Mill



slockamy2, Uploaded on Jul 14, 2011

Jay Bland & Thomas Maupin buck dancing at Mabry Mill July 4th weekend. They are both champion dancers, (state & national) & we were fortunate to be there the same time as they were.

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Video #3: Over the Top Be-Bop: Honi Coles & Cholly Atkins.



crackedoreo,Uploaded on Sep 12, 2011

A discussion of the history of tap dance with Marshall Stearns. Charles (Honi) Coles and Charlie Atkins demonstrate various dance steps such as: "over the top," "bebop, " "buck and wing, " and "slow drag."
-snip-
The demonstration of several “wings” steps starts at 8:59.

One of the observers who introduces this segment said “There are apparently as many wings as there are time steps”.,

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RELATED LINK
http://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2012/10/various-late-19th-century-early-20th.html "Various Late 19th Century & Early 20th Century African American Bird Dances"

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This concludes Part I of this series.

Thanks to those whose comment I quoted.

Thank you for visiting pancocojams.

Visitor comments are welcome.

Deconstructing The Stereotype Of Black People As Apes & Monkeys

Edited by Azizi Powell

I was motivated to publish this post as a result of reading about the Australian football (soccer) player Adam Goodes who was called "monkey" by a 13 year old girl during a game during that nation's week dedicated to honoring indigenous athletes.

Here's a video of an interview of that player in which he talks about that incident:

Adam Goodes response to a racist taunt, unedited.



Published on May 25, 2013

20 years after Nicky Winmar took a historic stand against racist taunts from the crowd, a spectator again hurled racist abuse at AFL star Adam Goodes.

It happened a day after the Australian Football League launched the indigenous round, intended to celebrate the role of aboriginal players.

This was Adam Goodes' response. This video is the unedited news conference.
-snip-
In that interview Adam Goodes talked about how hurtful it was to him, his family, and other Black people to be called ape or monkey. He repeatedly thanked his fellow players and others for the support that he has been given and asked for support for the 13 year old who called him an ape. Goodes indicated that he thought that the girl was repeating what she had heard and didn't understand what such a taunt meant.

Click http://www.heraldsun.com.au/sport/afl/adam-goodes-full-racism-press-conference-transcript/story-fni5fan7-1226650424034 for a full transcript of that interview.

Click http://www.dailykos.com/story/2013/05/27/1211965/-13-yo-Australian-Spectator-Thrown-Out-of-Football-Stadium-For-Racist-Remark for a discussion about that particular incident & about other incidents in which Black or Brown people are called apes or monkeys.

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That incident motivated me to surf the internet to find information about the history of the stereotypess of Black peopel as apes & monkeys. Here's an excerpt of one article that I found:
From http://www.authentichistory.com/diversity/african/3-coon/6-monkey/
"A hateful association of Blacks with apes and monkeys was yet another way that the antebellum South justified slavery. Blacks were considered by some to be more simian than human, and therefore had no self-evident rights including freedom…The general acceptance of the evolutionary theories of Charles Darwin were easily twisted into a means of identifying further “evidence” of the primitive status of Blacks...

The depiction of Blacks as apes and monkeys found expression in mainstream popular culture around the turn of the century*, especially in post cards. Often it was the zip or urban coon that was being caricatured, for the amusement of white consumers. Note the simian appearance of Black Americans in each of the postcards to the left, and how they have been dandified. These images are intended to be ironic, and to cater to the notion that Black coons are too stupid to understand that their efforts to assimilate into white culture only emphasize their inherent inferiority."
-snip-
No century was specified in that paragraph, but given the references to the late 1800s, I think that that sentence refers to the 20th century.

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There are numerous online documentation in the United States, Europe, and elsewhere of Black people being depicted as apes or monkeys, beng called apes or monkeys, and/or having banana peels thrown at them, alluded to this ape/monkey stereotype. Here's an excerpt from one website:
http://blackathlete.net/2012/11/king-kong-nuthin-me-monkey-business-sports-politcs/
"...this type of blatant in your face racism, especially coming from England, where the 2012 Olympic games were held, is almost the norm.

Just consider the racist history of how Black athletes are mocked, especially Black soccer players during soccer matches in England,Italy and Spain, when they are insulted by fans, who make monkey chants while they play.

Matter of fact, just last year, the Brazilian legend Roberto Carlos walked off the field when a banana was thrown toward him at a league match in Russia.

This is racism in its purest and rawest form.

Unfortunately, however, this evil practice and behavior of throwing bananas at Black athletes has even occurred during a NHL (National Hockey League)game as well.

For instance, a spectator threw a banana at Philadelphia Flyers forward Wayne Simmonds during an overtime shootout attempt during a the Flyers’ preseason game against the Detroit Red Wings in London, Ontario.

This, unfortunately, is not an isolated incident.

Why? Because former Carolina Hurricanes goaltender Kevin Weekes had a banana thrown at him during a 2002 playoff series with the Montreal Canadians in Montreal as well.

Yeah, the more things change; the more they stay the same.

Because, unbelievably, just this year, during the Republican National Convention in Tampa, it showed up again, when Patricia Carroll, a Black camerawoman who works for CNN had peanuts thrown at her by two Caucasian males, who shouted at her “this is what we feed animals.”...

the real source of this fear of the Planet of Apes, is Barack Hussein Obama, who has had to experience the same type of racist name-calling that Black athletes like Jackie Robinson had to endured when he integrated Major League in April 15, 1947.

Obama, in fact, was called Curious George, who is cartoon monkey by South Carolina political consultant, Sen. Diane Black on Twitter the day after the election in 2008.

Plus, he was portrayed as a gorilla by NY Post cartoonist Sean Delonas who depicted two policemen, one with smoking gun, standing over a dead chimpanzee with the words, “They’ll have to find someone else to write the next stimulus bill.”

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Given the history of Black people (and Brown people) being called apes and monkeys as a short-hand way of saying that we are more simian that human, it's surprising that the first historically Black (African American) Greek lettered fraternity that is still in existence Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. has adopted apes as its unofficial mascot.

It's clear from watching videos of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. (A Phi A; Alphas) step shows & strolls that persons associated with that fraternity consider apes as their unofficial mascot, symbol, or icon. That this symbolism is unofficial is underscored by the fact that there's no mention of apes being a symbol of A Phi A on that organization's website http://www.alpha-phi-alpha.com or on the Wikipedia page about that organization http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alpha_Phi_Alpha.

Note this overview from that Wikipedia page:
"Alpha Phi Alpha (ΑΦΑ) is the first Black, Inter-Collegiate Greek-Lettered fraternity. It was founded on December 4, 1906 at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. Its founders are known as the "Seven Jewels". Alpha Phi Alpha developed a model that was used by the many Black Greek Letter Organizations (BGLOs) that soon followed in its footsteps. It employs an icon from Ancient Egypt, the Great Sphinx of Giza as its symbol, and its aims are "manly deeds, scholarship, and love for all mankind," and its motto is First of All, Servants of All, We Shall Transcend All."...
-snip-
Yet, the positive association of Alphas and apes is clear in the beginning portion of this Alpha Phi Alpha step show video:

Alpha Phi Alpha WIN 2012 Atlanta Greek Picnic step show



Atlanta Greek Picnic, Published on Jun 17, 2012
Alpha Phi Alpha WIN 2012 Atlanta Greek Picnic $10,000 step show
-snip-
In a portion of that video (around 1:42 to around 2:10) & in some other A Phi A step routines, Alphas act like apes. They crouch down and jump up & down like apes. They hold their arms to the side like apes, hit their chest & hit the ground in front of where they are standing. And they make ape sounds while looking menacing. In some videos of Alpha strolls [party walks] one or more members of Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity wear a gorilla mask.

Here are two comments from viewers of the step show video that is featured above:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fjy2gHKIaqk
"MY BLACK MY BLACK MY BBBBBBBBBLACK!
A Phi to the Apes! Congrats bruhs!"
-Santwon Hines, 2012
**
"thats how APES do it . great performance PHRAT . you APES did your thing ."
PHROZEN spr' 12
Gamma Kappa
Miles College
-tri66z, 2012
-snip-
My guess is that the A Phi A's unofficial adoption of the ape was two-fold: 1. because that word is close in sound to that organization's Greek letter name & 2. because the ape is associated with the continent of Africa. Note that the Great Sphinx of Giza is that Alpha Phi Alpha's official symbol, and that organization prides itself on its connection to Egypt and Ethiopia. [Wikipedia pages, and official website links given above]

I also am guessing that the Alpha's adoption of the ape as a mascot or symbol is relatively new. I think that this may have occurred in the mid 1990s or later. Although I was actively associated with historically Black Greek lettered organizations in the late 1960s-as a member of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc [Gamma Zeta chapter, New Jersey, 1967], I don't remember Alphas being associated with apes then. I don't recall Alphas having the ape as their mascot in the 1970s and 1980s. And my daughter who attended a number of step shows in the early 1990s in Pennsylvania has no recollections of the ape being associated with Alphas. I didn't learn about the Alphas association with the ape characterization until the three years ago or so when I saw YouTube videos of Alphas step shows & (Alpha) ape walk.

Maybe the Alphas rationalize their adoption of the ape as their unoffical animal mascot as reclaiming that animal and taking the negativity out of its conotations - the same way that some Black people rationalize their use of the pejorative now known as "the n word". But I don't buy either claim.

In light of the fact that Black and Brown people have been insulted & demeaned and continue to be insulted and demeaned by being characterized and called apes or monkeys, having banana peels thrown at us, and/or having monkey sounds directed to us, I strongly question the efficacy and wisdom of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. choosing the ape as their mascot, regardless of whether that choice is official or unofficial.

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UPDATE September 2, 2016:
A passage from Elizabeth C. Fine's book Soulstepping: African American Step Shows quotes a passage in Howard University's 1988 Bison yearbook mentions apes in reference to Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc.
P.40
..."One of the few descriptions of a different type of step show-the probate show-appears in the 1988 Bison. In “Probation prior to Vacation: Karen Samuels provides colorful details about the performances of five pledge clubs, demonstrating the importance of movement, song, and symbolic costumes....
There are also photographs of the AKA pledge club, the Delta pledges performing their ritual duck walk; and the “Nubian Apes of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity. Inc.” who “let out whoops and snatched members of the audience into their arms as they prepare to cross the burning sands into Alpha land.” [Samuel, Bison, “Probation Prior to Vacation” 14-15
-snip-
In a comment on a 2000 Greekchat.com discussion about pledging*, a member of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity Inc. writes "Yes I know the secret of the ape and what the colors mean.".
http://www.greekchat.com/gcforums/showthread.php?t=2770
-end of quote-
I've read in a 2009 Geocities anti-greek forum that in Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity pledge process, "a.p.e" means "almost pledged* entirely". http://www.oocities.org/glos_havebeenexposed/sin_and_shame.html don’tgogreek.com
-end of quote-

That may or may not be true.

*"Pledging" may not be always be the same thing as hazing". But it should be noted that hazing has been prohibited by members of the National Pan-Hellenic Council since 1990. And that greekchat.com discussion talks about "underground pledging" (as a way of getting around that hazing prohibition- although that process may still be quite common, it's definitely not legal.)
-snip-
Added to my guesses (shared above) as to what "ape" might mean to members of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc., I also posit that the word "ape" is spelled almost the same as "A Phi". And I wonder if Alphas promoted/promote the image of the huge, strong, burly ape as a means of counteracting the negative stereotypes of that fraternity's members being "less manly" than the brothers of certain other historically Black Greek lettered fraternities. Maybe that's just an ancillary benefit of that mascot/slogan or maybe that has nothing what so ever to do with "ape" and Alphamen, although the 1988 Howard University description of the Alphas whooping like apes and snatching women from the audience suggests that that action is modeled after the movie King Kong.

I understand that an organization's choice of its mascot/symbol is their members' choice alone. Still, even more so that what I wrote in 2013), I strongly question the efficacy and wisdom of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. choosing the ape as their mascot and I abhor that choice.

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Thanks for visiting pancocojams.

Visitor comments are welcome.

Sunday, May 26, 2013

Bless That Wonderful Name Of Jesus (videos & lyrics)

Edited by Azizi Powell

This post presents two videos of the Gospel song "Bless That Wonderful Name Of Jesus". My transcriptions of bot of these songs are also included in this post.

The content of this post is presented for religious, and aesthetic purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

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FEATURED VIDEOS
Example #1: Old fashioned, Hand Clapping, Foot Stomping, PRAISE



Apostle Stacey Woods, Uploaded on Oct 21, 2008
Apostle Stacey Woods leads the congregation in Praise and Worship
-snip-
LYRICS - BLESS THAT WONDERFUL NAME OF JESUS [Example #1]

Bless that wonderful name of Jesus [3x]
[There’s] no other name I know.

There’s power in the name of Jesus
Power in the name of Jesus
There's power in the name of Jesus
No other name I know.

I’ve found deliverance in the name of Jesus
Deliverance in the name of Jesus
I’ve found deliverance in the name of Jesus
No other name I know.

Bless that wonderful name of Jesus [3x]
No other name I know.

Lead -No other name
Congregation -no other name
No other name
(no other name)
No other name
(no other name)
Like the name of Jesus
(no other name)
No, no no no no no
(no other name)
No other name
(no other name)
No other name
(no other name)
No other name I know
(no other name)
No other name like the name of Jesus
(no other name)
No other one
(no other name)
Can truly free us
(no other name)
There is no
(no other name)
No other name
(no other name)
There is no
(no other name)
No other name
(no other name)
And there is something
(No other name)
That the devil know
(No other name)
That at His name
(no other name)
He’s* got to go.
(no other name)
No other name
(no other name)
No other name
(no other name)
Please help me bless that wonderful name of Jesus [3x]
There’s no other name I know.
-snip-
*He’s got to go= “He” here is the devil
-snip-
Transcription by Azizi Powell. Additions & corrections are welcome.

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Example #2: Bless That Wonderful Name of Jesus - Praise & Worship



matthew5and9, Uploaded on May 6, 2009
Rose Marie Rimson Brown leads the church into worship
-snip-
LYRICS - BLESS THAT WONDERFUL NAME OF JESUS [Example #2]
Bless that wonderful name of Jesus [3x]
No other name I know

[We come to] bless that wonderful name of Jesus [3x]
No other name I know.

[Won't you help me] bless that wonderful name of Jesus [3x]
No other name I know.

[There’s] deliverance in the name of Jesus [3x]
No other name I know
Lead-What’s His name?
Congregation- (Jesus)
What His name?
(Jesus)
He’s a burden bearer.
(Jesus)
He's a heavy load sharer.
(Jesus)
He's a covenant keeper
(Jesus)
What’s His name?
(Jesus)
What’s His name?
(Jesus)
What's His name?
(Jesus)
He's a burden bearer
(Jesus)
He’s a heavy load sharer
(Jesus)
He’s a friend in need
(Jesus)
He’s a friend indeed
(Jesus)
I love to call Him
(Jesus)
I love to call Him.
(Jesus)
There’s salvation in the name of
(Jesus)
Deliverance in the name of
(Jesus)
At that name every knee shall bow
(Jesus)
Every tongue confess
(Jesus)
What’s His name?
(Jesus)
What’s His name?
(Jesus)
He's a salvation giver
(Jesus)
He’s a healer
(Jesus)
He’s a deliverer
(Jesus)
Oh bless that wonderful name of Jesus [3x]
No other name I know.
[Lead singer testifies]
Thank you
(Thank you)
Thank you
(Thank you)
Thank you
(Thank you)
[Oh] Bless that wonderful name of Jesus [3x]
No other name I know.
-snip-
This isn't an exact transcription of this renditon of this song. However, I think that this transcription gives a "feel" for that song whose words & length isn't fixed. That said, additions & corrections are welcome.

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COMMENTS
In both of these songs the church members effortlessly moved from a unison format verse format (with a lead singer starting the verse) to a call & response format and back to the unison format.

A 1991 Baptist Hymnal provides credits the words & tune for this song as "traditional African American". Here are the words from that Hymnal:
Bless that wonderful name of Jesus [3x]
No other name I know.

Other verses using the same format:
Sing that wonderful name...
Preach...
Praise...
Share...

Source: http://www.hymnary.org/hymn/BH1991/236

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RELATED LINK
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oBCTDezLYJQ
Donnie McClurkin - Jesus Medley + Reprise [songs that Donnie McClurckin learned in the Church of God In Christ (COGIC) including "Bless That Wonderful Name Of Jesus".

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Thanks to the lead singers and the congregations for sharing this song.

Thanks to the publishers of these videos on YouTube.

Thank you for visiting pancocojam.

Visitor comments are welcome.

"Roll And Tumble Blues" & "Rollin And Tumblin" (Sound Files & Lyrics)

Edited by Azizi Powell

This post showcases a sound file of the Blues classic "Roll And Tumbled Blues" and two song files of the Blues classics "Rollin & Tumblin" which were adapted from that song.

These songs are presented in the order of their recording & are by Hambone Willie Newbern, Muddy Waters, and Elmore James. The lyrics to these versions are also included in this post.

The content of this post is presented for folkloric, entertainment, and aesthetic purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

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FEATURED EXAMPLES & THEIR LYRICS

Example #1: Hambone Willie Newbern - Roll and Tumble Blues [1929]



wisdomisbetter, Uploaded on Jul 9, 2011
-snip-
LYRICS - ROLL AND TUMBLE BLUES
(Hambone Willie Newbern)

And I rolled and I tumbled
and I cried the whole night long
And I rosed this morning mama
and I didn't know right from wrong

Did you ever wake up
nd find your dough‑roller gone
And you wrings your hands
and you cry the whole day long

And I told my woman Lord
[just] before I left her town
Don't she let nobody
tear her barrelhouse down

And I fold my arms Lord
and I [slowly] walked away
Says that's all right sweet mama
your trouble going to come some day

Source: http://www.elyrics.net/read/h/hambone-willie-newbern-lyrics/roll-and-tumble-blues-lyrics.html
-snip-
Tern Explanations:
your "dough roller" = your female lover

"don't she let nobody tear her barrelhouse down" = don't let her have sex with anyone else.

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Example #2: Rollin' and Tumblin' Part 1 and 2 - MUDDY WATERS

jsystevo007, Uploaded on May 25, 2009
If the river was whiskey.....................i would be diving thru!

Classic muddy...parts 1 and 2 for your convenience!

-snip-
Summary from Muddy Waters - Rollin' & Tumblin' ( Chess 1950 )



cojwat, Uploaded on Apr 25, 2010

Recorded in the year 1950 at Chess label. There is also other versions of this song here in YouTube, but they are all worth of listening. Muddy Waters is the Father of Chicago Blues and absolutely one of the greatest blues musicians.

I hope owners of the rights want to see this as an honor to this artist, which it really is. And same goes to these random photos, paintings and artworks, which I have found from net.
My hope is that everyone can just listen to this fine musician. Enjoy!

Its so nice, that you can still buy these recordings on CD!
-snip-
LYRICS - ROLLIN AND TUMBLIN
(as performed by Muddy Waters)

Well, I rolled and I tumbled,
Cried the whole night long.
Well, I rolled and I tumbled,
Cried the whole night long.
Well, I woke up this mornin,
Didn't know right from wrong.

Well, I told my baby,
Before I left that town.
Well, I told my baby,
Before I left that town.
Well, don't you let nobody,
Tear my barrelhouse down.

Well, ahh, mmm-hmmm,
Owww, oww ooo, aww, oww, oh.
Aaa, mmm-hmmm, oww, oh oh oh
Owww, oww ooo, aww, oww, oh.

Well, if the river was whiskey,
And I was a divin duck.
Well, if the river was whiskey,
And I was a divin duck.
Well, I would dive to the bottom,
Never would I come up.

Well, I could a had a religion,
This bad old thing instead.
Well, I could a had a religion,
This bad old thing instead.
Well, all whiskey and women,
Would not let me pray.

Source: http://www.lyricsmode.com/lyrics/m/muddy_waters/rollin_tumblin.html [reformatted]

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Example #3: Elmore James - Rollin' and Tumblin' [1960]



shortrax, Uploaded on Aug 18, 2008

Fiery version of the blues standard by Mississippi slide guitar legend Elmo. It is basically the same tune as Robert Johnson's Travellin' Riverside Blues, but even that was not the earliest version.
-snip-
Click http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ecwW2fX1Yew for a sound file of Robert Johnson's Travelin Riverside Blues.

Also, click http://www.lyricsmania.com/traveling_riverside_blues_lyrics_robert_johnson.html for the lyrics to that song.

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LYRICS - ROLLIN AND TUMBLIN
(as performed by Elmore James)

I roll and I tumble,
cried the whole night long
Yes I roll and I tumble,
I cried the whole night long
I got up this morning,
feeling that something going on wrong

Well now want you to love me baby,
or please let me be
Yes love me baby,
or please let me be
If you don't like my peaches
please don't shake my tree

Well I want you to love me baby,
and come on and say you'll be mine
I want you to love me baby,
come and say you'll be mine
If you don't like my potatoes,
please don't dig up my vine

Source: http://www.lyricstime.com/elmore-james-rollin-and-tumblin-lyrics.html [reformatted]

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT AND THANKS
Thanks to these Bluesmen for their musical legacy. Thanks also to the publishers of these sound files on YouTube, and thanks to the transcribers of these lyrics.

Thanks for visiting pancocojams.

Visitor comments are welcome.

Saturday, May 25, 2013

Videos Of The Cha Cha Slide (Casper Slide) & Mississippi Cha Cha Slide (Stomp)

Edited by Azizi Powell

This post showcases videos of the line dances "Cha Cha Slide" (also known as "the Casper Slide") and the Mississippi Cha Cha Slide (also known as "Stomp", and the Mississippi Slide".

The content of this post is presented for cultural, entertainment and aesthetic purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

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COMMENT ABOUT THE TERMS "SLIDE" AND "STOMP"
The word "slide" and the word "stomp" are often found in the title of dance songs. These terms refer to foot movements:
"Slide" = to move smoothly across a surface
and
"Stomp" = to hit down hard on the surface of the floor.

The slide and the stomp movements are found in the videos of these dances.

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FEATURED VIDEOS
[The video of the Cha Cha Slide is presented first since its the oldest of these twoo dances, having been recorded in 2000. The other dance videos are posted in chronological order with the oldest video posted first.]

DJ Casper - "Cha Cha Slide"



MrCTheSlideManVEVO | June 16, 2009

Music video by Mr. C The Slide Man performing Cha-Cha Slide. (C) 2000 Universal Records, a Division of UMG Recordings, Inc.

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Video #2: Mississippi Cha Cha Slide Aka Stomp



Glen Cannon, Uploaded on Oct 14, 2006

web promo for alpine Records and Mixx Master Lee
"Stomp"aka Cha-Cha Slide Download the song @ songkingmusic.com

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Video #3: Step / Line Dance - "The Stomp/Cha Cha Slide"



StepInTheNameOfLife, Uploaded on Sep 1, 2007

Watch the latest Step/Line Dance, "The Stomp/Cha Cha Slide"

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Video #4: cha cha Slide - Mississippi Stomp version



sukeap spazzo, Uploaded on Oct 11, 2008
-snip-
The Mississippi Cha Cha Slide (Stomp) was recorded by Mixx Master Lee in 2007.

The video uploader was incorrect when he or she wrote that this was the Electric Slide. The "Electric Slide" is a different line dance. Click http://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2012/02/selected-videos-of-electric-slide.html for a pancocojam post on the Electric Slide.

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Video #5: Mississippi_Slide.mov

.

Michael Ivy, Uploaded on Dec 6, 2009
Line Dance

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BONUS VIDEO - McDonald's Happy Meal Ad Cha Cha Slide (long version)



lttsrh, Uploaded on Sep 19, 2007

Hilarious!
-snip-
This McDonalds commercial aired in 2005.

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RELATED LINKS
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cha_Cha_Slide

http://www.elyrics.net/read/c/casper-lyrics/cha-cha-slide-lyrics.html

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT AND THANKS
Thanks to all those who are featured in these videos & thanks to those who published these video on YouTube.

Thanks for visiting pancocojams.

Visitor comments are welcome

Friday, May 24, 2013

Overview of Stomp & Shake Cheerleading (Part III)

Edited by Azizi Powell

[Latest Revision- June 27, 2017]

This is Part III of a three part series that compares three different but closely related African American originated performance movement arts: historically Black fraternities & sororities steppin (stepping); foot stomping [cheers]; and stomp & shake cheerleading.

Part III of this series provides an overview of stomp & shake cheerleading.

Part I provides an overview of historically Black (African American) Greek lettered fraternities & sororities. Click http://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2013/05/an-overview-of-black-greek-letter.html for Part I of this series.

Part II provides an overview of foot stomping cheers. Click http://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2013/05/an-overview-of-foot-stomping-cheers.html and http://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2014/11/an-overview-of-foot-stomping-cheers.html for this information and examples of foot stomping cheers.

The content of this post is presented for folkloric, cultural, entertainment, and aesthetic purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

****
PART III
WHAT IS STOMP & SHAKE CHEERLEADING?
"Stomp & Shake" cheerleading is a referent for a relatively new form of African American originated style of cheerleading.

Stomp & shake cheerleading focuses on the group performance of choreographed percussive, rhythmic foot stomping, (individual) hand clapping, leg lifts, and African American/Caribbean originated dance moves. These body movements are often but not always accompanied by the cheer squad's performance of self-bragging and/or competitor insulting unison chanting. Although most stomp & shake cheerleaders are female, a few males also are members of certain (usually university) stomp & shake squads. This particularly appears to be the case among university cheerleading squads that perform stomp & shake cheerleading and mainstream ("traditional") cheerleading.

Like mainstream cheerleading, the purpose of the cheer squad is to increase the enthusiasm of event attendees. However, the focus of stomp and shake cheer squads' performances and their textual (word) cheers are on the cheer squad itself, and not nearly as much as mainstream cheerleading on the football (or basketball) athletic team. Stomp & Shake is a relatively new form of cheerleading.

The earliest documentation that I've found for stomp &shake cheerleading is the early to mid 1970s at Virginia State University's cheerleading squad (the "Woo Woos) and in the late 1970s at Winston-Salem State University cheerleading squads (known as "Cheer Phi" and later as "the Red Team" and the "White Team").

Here are some quotes that I've found about the early history of stomp & shake cheerleading:
From http://www.motherjones.com/media/2014/12/cheerleader-history-timeline
A Not-So-Brief and Extremely Sordid History of Cheerleading —By Julia Lurie
Mon Dec. 15, 2014 6:15 AM EST
..."As schools continue to integrate, one factor adding to tension is the difference in cheerleading styles between black and white schools: As Lou Lillard, a black cheerleader named All-American in 1972, explained, "The type of cheering at black high schools is…more of a stomp-clap, soul-swing...At [white] schools, the traditional cheers are straight-arm motions."
-snip-
Since I first published this post I learned that Dr. Paulette Johnson began coaching for Virginia State University's Woo Woos cheerleaders in 1974, and coached that squad for 35 1/2 years. http://hbcuconnect.com/content/180466/dr-paulette-walker-johnson-retires-as-coach-of-virginia-state-university-woo-woos

I also learned that Debra [Deborah] L. Rivers initiated the stomp & shake style of cheerleading at Winston Salem State University when she began coaching that cheerleading squad in 1976. She was WSSU's cheerleading coach for 17 years. https://winstonsalem.prestosports.com/about/hall_of_fame/Hall_of_Fame_Bios/Debra_Rivers_Johnson_Bio?view=bio.

I believe that it's significant that that same time period (the early to mid 1970s and the early 1980) in the Washington D.C. area which is geographically continuous with Virginia, is documented as the time period and geographical location for the beginning development of or the increased popularization of historically Black university's Greek letter fraternity and sorority stepping, as well as the earliest time period and one of the earliest documented geographical sites* for one of the earliest sites for the African American originated (mostly girls 5-12 year old) sub-set of cheerleading that I refer to as "foot stomping cheers".

*Ironically, the earliest dated "foot stomping cheer" example that I've collected, was from an online communication with an unknown White woman who resided/resides in my former hometown of Atlantic City, New Jersey (early 1970s, from her memory of White, Black, and Latina high school girls).

Stomp & Shake cheerleading has vehement supporters who love the creativity, innovation, skill, showmanship, "hardness" and "for realness" (according to Black cultural criteria) of this type of cheerleading. However, stomp & shake cheerleading also has vehement detractors who don't consider it to be "real cheerleading", but a form of fraternity/sorority stepping and/or cheer dancing. Stomp & cheer detractors also routinely negatively label stomp & shake cheerleading and its (almost exclusively) Black female squad members as being "ghetto" (behaving and dressing in ways that are unacceptable in middle class standards, particularly to behave and dress in sexually provocative ("slutty) ways, and behaving in loud and overly aggressive confrontational ways.

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CHEERLEADING AS DRAMATIC PLAY: BATTLE CHEERS
Stomp & shake cheerleading differs from mainstream (traditional) cheerleading in that its cheers/chants often focus on the cheerleading squad itself and not on the athletes, the game being played, or the audience watching the game.

The facial expressions and persona of stomp & cheer cheerleaders are often diametrically the opposite of the perky, always smiling mainstream cheerleader, particularly when it comes to stomp and shake "battle cheers". "Battle cheers" are chanted to big up (brag about) your athletic team and/or your cheerleading squad, and to put down (diss) your competitor's cheerleading squad.

The term "battle cheers" refers both the type of stomp & shake cheers and the purpose for those cheers. "Battle cheers" are chanted by two opposing cheerleading squads prior to a competitive football game or during a "battle cheer" competition. During a battle cheer each cheerleading squad performs self-bragging cheers and group insulting cheers as a way of rattling the confidence of their competitors and as a way of determining which squad is the most successful in getting their fans "hyped" (according to crowd reactions). These cheer activities can are similar to face to face Dozens competitions and Rap competitions, except that improvisation and free styling are key elements in Dozens & Rap competitions, but isn't an element of (or is a much reduced element of) stomp & cheer battle cheers.

It's important to remember that drama (role playing) is an important part of chanting insult/bragging stomp & shake cheers. The cheer performance fails if the cheerleader doesn't act as if she is confident, strong, assertive, and unafraid of the members of the rival cheerleading squad.

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PERFORMING OTHER SQUADS' CHEERS
According to online discussion threads about this topic, university stomp & shake squads who perform stomp & shake cheers that are associated with another university squad are looked down upon for lacking originality. Those university level cheerleading squads and high school, middle school etc. squads that perform other cheerleaders' cheers/chants are often accused of "stealing". However, thanks to the internet and YouTube in particular, certain stomp & shake cheers & their routines have become part of the cheer repertoire of high school, middle school, and elementary school cheerleading squads.

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Since this post was first published in 2013, I've noted that stomp & shake cheers are sometimes referred to (in YouTube video discussion threads) as "stomp chants" or "stomp cheers".

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DESCRIPTIONS OF TWO STOMP & SHAKE MOVES: "UPSTOMPS" AND "JIGGAPOPS"
"Upstomps" is a signature movement that is performed by female and male members of some stomp and shake squads where the cheerleaders stomp two times with their left foot and perform a knee lift (raise the right leg bent at the knee). In the videos I've watched of upstomping, the toes are usually pointed to the ground. In some stomp and shake squads the knee is bent at a slight angle toward the right.

It's likely that this stomp and shake movement came from the African American originated high step marching of show style marching bands. High step marching also includes knee lifts.

Another stomp & shake movement that female cheerleaders perform is called "jiggapops". "Jiggapops" are a rhythmical, fast double shake of their hips that is best shown off when the cheerleaders wear pleated cheerleader skirts.

Most stomp and shake squads are females only. When males are also members of those squads, they don't shake as much as the females.

Here's a quote from a 2014 version of a CIAA page that refers to "upstomps", "jiggapops", and some other stomp and shake movements:
"The CIAA cheering squads practice Stomp 'N Shake that incorporates voice, gymnastics, and dance. Over the past few decades, S-N-S has evolved into a more technical style, priding itself on precision, accuracy, and creativity. Included in this style are the techniques of up-stomp, up-step, down-stomp, kick, side-kick, roll, roll-break, power-arms, slpaz-hand, clasp, blade, and the shakes(car-wash shake, single shake, double shake, hit-shake, and jiggle-pop). CIAA Cheerleading is most known for its cheer battles. This is where squads battle each other during games verbally with chants. It provides a heightened level of excitement and competition to the sports they are cheering for. It showcases cheerleading in a different dimension. Only in this style can you excite the crowd, rally them to cheer on the team, cheer on the team and slay your opponent all at the same time."
-snip-
* retrieved on February 5, 2014 [This paragraph isn’t included in that Wikipedia page as of 9/14/2016.
No descriptions of those movements were given on that page. While I've found one description of "upstomps" online, to date I've not come across any descriptions of these other movements.

Here's information about the CIAA:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Intercollegiate_Athletic_Association
"The Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association (CIAA) is a collegiate athletic conference, mostly consisting of historically black colleges and universities. CIAA institutions are affiliated at the Division II level of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA).
Conference members are primarily located in North Carolina (eight) and Virginia (two). There is also one school from Maryland and another from Pennsylvania"...
-snip-
Stomp & shake cheer routines may also include some body patting. In some YouTube videos of high school stomp and shake squads, the squad members perform the entire cheer while seated in gym bleachers.

The above mentioned movements are done while the squad is reciting cheers. These cheers are usually introduced by one squad members, who says the name of the cheer and may do a brief cheer motion. Unlike foot stomping cheers, stomp chants are they are unison cheers. Also, many stomp & shake cheers are similar in tone-but not in structure-to the insult/bragging foot stomping cheers. However, stomp & shake cheerleaders may also perform their routines to recorded music.

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SHOWCASE VIDEOS
Here's a video of a widely replicated "battle cheer":

Howard University Bison Cheerleaders 2



CoachSpence, Uploaded on Oct 19, 2006

Howard University Battle Cheer "Sit Back Down"

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SHOWCASE VIDEOS: VSU WOO WOOS AND WSSU'S RED TEAM
Example #1: The World Renown Woo Woos of Virginia State University



GoTrojans·Uploaded on Sep 30, 2010

2009 Freedom Classic
January 2009
Richmond, VA

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Example #2: WSSU Red Team Cheerleaders NC Stomp & Shake Competition



Kiaerica Krishelle, Published on Feb 23, 2013

WSSU opening up the show at the FIRST annual Stomp n Shake cheerleading competition on Saturday 2/23/2013
-snip-
The way the cheerleaders held their hands when they eentered the gym reminds me of the way that the Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc step teams perform their signature cheer "It's A Serious Matter". That post and other sorority & fraternity posts can be found on pancocojams by clicking the "steppin" or "fraternity and sorority chants" tags.

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VIDEO OF A HIGH SCHOOL STOMP & SHAKE CHEERLEADING SQUAD

SASSY (We Shake The Best)



woowooworkit·Uploaded on Feb 17, 2007

JV And Varsity SASSY cheerleaders cheer at the last game against bluestone
-snip-
The words to each of this cheer and other pre-university cheerleader cheers, including several stomp & shake cheers are found on this page of my cocojams website: http://cocojams.com/content/childrens-cheerleader-cheers.

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RELATED LINK
Click http://thesocietypages.org/socimages/2011/07/21/race-and-the-changing-shape-of-cheerleading/ for a post on stomp & shake cheerleading that I wrote which was published on the sociological images blog.

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This concludes Part III of this series.

Thanks to the composers of these cheers and the performers of these featured stomp & shake cheer routines. Thanks also to the publishers of these videos on YouTube.

Thanks for visiting pancocojams.

Visitor comments are welcome.


An Overview Of Foot Stomping Cheers (Part I- Characteristic & Sources)

Edited by Azizi Powell

[revised September 18, 2014]

This is Part I of a two part post on foot stomping cheers. This post provides a general overview of the textual structure and performance of foot stomping cheers. Part I also includes my theories about the sources of this children's recreational activity.

Click http://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2014/11/an-overview-of-foot-stomping-cheers.html for Part II of a post on foot stomping cheers. Part II provides examples of foot stomping cheers from four different categories of those cheers.

I coined the term "foot stomping cheers" in 2000 to distinguish examples of that category from other cheerleader cheers. However, it appears from my direct collection and from my online collection that girls usually referred to these examples as "cheers". Sometimes they were called "chants" or "steps".

Also note that these posts on foot stomping cheers aren't about stomp cheers "stomps". The structure (words) and performance (movements) of stomp cheers may be the same as, slightly different from, or very different from the structure (words) and performance (movements) of foot stomping cheers. Click http://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2014/11/how-stomp-cheers-differ-from-foot.html "How Stomp Cheers Differ From Foot Stomping Cheers".

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The content of this post is presented for folkloric, cultural, entertainment, and aesthetic purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

****
PART I: WHAT ARE FOOT STOMPING CHEERS?
"Foot stomping cheers" is the term that I coined in 2000 for a relatively new category of children's recreational play that involves chanting and choreographed foot and hand clapping movements.

Two early examples of what I call foot stomping cheers are included in the 1978 vinyl record Old Mother Hippletoe: Rural and Urban Children’s Songs (New World NW 291). That album provided recordings of and notes about four different examples (actually five, since one example is a combination of two different cheers) that are credited to "Barbara Borum and other Washington, D.C., schoolgirls, vocals,
Recorded 1976 in Washington, D.C., by Kate Rinzler. That record features four cheers:
Think
Your Left
Cheering Is My Game
Hollywood Now Swingin' /
Dynomite
-snip-
Only two of those cheers fit the textual structural description of what I call "foot stomping cheers" - "Cheering Is My Game" and "Hollywood Now Swingin'/Dynomite". (I believe that the last recorded cheer is a combination of two independent [stand alone] cheers - "Hollywood Now Swingin'" and "Dynomite". I have directly collected several examples of "Cheering Is My Game" and "Hollywood Now Swinging" cheers from the 1980s in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. And I have found online examples from the 1980s and 1990s in multiple African American communities throughout the United States.

"Your Left" is the earliest documented example that I've found of the cheer/rhyme that's now widely known as "Bang Bang Choo Choo Train". The title "Your Left" points to one of that cheer's sources - the Duckworth Chant military cadence.
-snip-
Given the racial composition of Washington D.C. in the 1970s, is reasonable to assume that the Washington D.C. school girls were African American. "School girls" usually refers to females who are pre-college/university age (ages 5- 18 years). Given the references to boyfriends in those examples my guess is that those particular school girls were at least 10 years old. My documentation of what I call "foot stomping cheers" in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (1980-2005), those who performed those cheers were African American girls who usually were between 6 years old and 13 years old.

Kate Rinzler, the collector of the cheers featured in Old Mother Hippletoes... also wrote the album's notes. In those notes, Rinzler refers to these examples as "neighborhood cheers" and wrote
"Unlike the more communal games, neighborhood cheerleading as performed by girls in Washington, D.C., requires rehearsal and is often dominated by a single dynamic girl who solicits recruits and kicks out slackers. Girls practice by themselves, best friends cheer together, groups proliferate, and everyone who wants to gets into the act.

In 1973-75, fieldwork for the Festival of American Folklife revealed cheerleading girls taking turns doing a dance step or a simple gymnastic trick. In 1976, perhaps because of the popularity on television of the Olympic Games, there was a sudden citywide interest in gymnastic pyrotechnics: complete frontward and sideward splits, forward and backward flips,
and cartwheels ending in jumped splits.

The texts of the cheers suit the girls' growing sense of attractiveness, group solidarity, and allegiance to school and boyfriend. They also attest to their knowledge and misinformation about forbidden subjects —inebriation, aggression, sexuality—and to their interest in the heroes and heroines of movies that exploit these subjects."
-snip-
Notice that these cheer examples were documented as being part of the recreational play of girls pretending to be cheerleaders. This is in contrast to stomp cheers, a later form of foot stomping cheers that I believe developed at least by early 2000s as a result of mainstream cheerleading becoming aware of recreational foot stomping cheers.

Although those album notes make no reference to this, it's reasonable to assume that, like other recreational play, and like the foot stomping cheers that I observed my daughter and her friends perform in the 1980s, and other children perform since then, there is usually no formal audience for foot stomping cheers. The girls pretending to be cheerleaders perform in front of pretend audiences. They perform in groups of two or in a small group to learn the words to specific cheers and to master the specific cheer routines that they have choreographed.

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THE STRUCTURE, THEMES, AND WORDS OF FOOT STOMPING CHEERS
Here's information about the structure, themes, and words of foot stomping cheers as indicated by the examples given in the Old Mother Hippletoe album suggests, and as I have documented from my direct collecting from 1980s to 2010, and my online collecting to date:

1. Foot stomping cheers are composed using a variant form of call & response that I've termed "group/consecutive soloists".

Usually the group voice (often without the first soloist) is heard first. The soloist then responds to the group.
This pattern continues, and usually the soloist then has a short solo portion. The group may or may not chant again before the cheer begins again from the beginning with a new soloist. This pattern continues until every member of the group has had one equal (same amount of time) turn as the soloist. My experience is that the order of soloist is determined before the cheer begins, often with girls trying to be the first to call out "first", "second", "third" etc.

2. These cheers are performed by girls who stand in semi-circles, or in lines (usually horizontal lines), or stand in a circle with the soloist in the middle. My experience was with girls standing in semi-circles or in horizontal lines. It wasn't until those cheers were performed on stage as part of a game song group that I founded that I observed the soloist stepping up (performing stepping moves) to the front of the other girls and then, still facing forward, moving back to a place in the line while the new soloist stepped to the front of the other girls.

3. Unlike folk songs, these cheers feature only a limited amount of improvisation and choices of what words to say. My experience is that some cheers had "fixed" words, including the soloists' words. In other cheers, a certain amount of line choices and/or improvisation was expected in the soloists' portion. It appeared to me that girls memorized key lines and used them in those cheers that allowed for improvisation, as long as those lines fit the same theme as the cheer, and as long as those lines fit the same beat as the cheer. However, it was easy to fit lines with the beat, since, in my experience there were only two beat patterns used for foot stomping cheers.

4. Drama (role playing) is supposed to be an important part of chanting insult/bragging foot stomping cheers. These cheer performances fail if the stompers/chanters don't have "attitude" (i.e. How they say the cheer (intonation), their facial expressions, their moves and body gestures are supposed to support and reinforce the word of the cheer. For instance, in confrontational (insult, bragging) cheers the girls are pretending to have disdain for and aggressive stance toward their (imaginary, unnamed) opponent.

5. The following beat patterns were (are?) standard for foot stomping cheers: "stomp clap, stomp stomp clap" or "stomp stomp clap, stomp stomp clap".

The "stomp" portion of this pattern is made by hitting the foot hard on the ground to make a bass sound. The "clap" portion of the cheer was made by girls clapping their own hands (individual hand claps). In some cheers, girls alternated body pats with stomps. Hands could be clapped in front of a girl, between her legs, or less often - in my experience, over her head.

While the words to foot stomping cheers are important, the most important thing in the performance of foot stomping cheers is keeping the beat. Foot stomping is performed in a metronome like manner throughout the entire cheer. Once the beat starts, with very few exceptions, the exact same beat continues until the end of the cheer.

The idea of a metronome beat can best be demonstrated by the Pop group Queen's 1977 hit song "We Will Rock You":

Queen - We Will Rock You



d4v1s, Uploaded on Apr 13, 2006
-snip-
The "We will we will rock you" words of that song are used in a number of mainstream cheerleader cheers.
-snip-
Unfortunately, I've not been able to find any YouTube videos of people doing foot stomping cheers in the 1980s and 1990s. However, here are three Seeseme Street videos from the 1990s [?] that give a sense of how those cheers were performed:

Sesame Street - Three Girls clap a song about Vegetables



wattamack4, Uploaded on Jul 31, 2007

**
Sesame Street - Girls clap out a song about K



wattamack4, Uploaded on Jul 11, 2007
-snip-
The tune for this chant is exactly the same tune that I remember for the "L-O-V-E" cheer that is given below. However, the foot sliding in the front motion is different from the movements that I recall observing for this cheer, and I didn't observe girls performing that cheer standing in that formation.

**
Sesame Street - Girls clap out a song about seven




wattamack4, Uploaded on Aug 1, 2007
-snip-
Here's a comment from that video's discussion thread:

dubbsakamelodee, 2009
"LOL! What they were doing was "stepping." it's derived from African cultures. Africans used to "step" as a way to prepare for war or celebrate. Today, it is celebrated as a form of song and dance. And speaking of boys, I know that little boy in the middle had to get some kind of slack for being the only one with all those girls at that age."

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ORIGIN OF FOOT STOMPING CHEERS
In my experiences, some girls referred to the cheer performance as "doing cheers" or "doing steps". The performance of "foot stomping cheers" -but not the structure of those cheers-is very similar to the performance of historically Black (African American) Greek letter fraternity and sorority stepping.

I believe that foot stomping cheers developed from
[mainstream] cheerleading cheers and cheerleader cheering performances [as Kate Rinzler indicated in her Mother Hippletoe album notes] AND from historically Black (African American) fraternity/sorority stepping [the movement art and also the chants themselves- although those chants don't usually
have a call & response format]. Stomp and shake cheerleading also developed from mainstream cheerleading. And all of those performance arts were greatly influenced by Washington D.C. based go go music and by funk music.

Kate Rinzler wrote that the girls she recorded in 1976 doing those "neighborhood cheers" did back flips and splits. She might have been referring to the other cheers that she collected during that session- Read my earlier comments. In my observations (in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and surrounding communities) no back flips, splits, or other gymnastic moves were done during foot stomping cheer performances. Instead, for the solo portions, girls did moves from currently popular R&B/Hip Hop dances.

Foot stomping cheers are part of children's recreational play, and therefore have no known composers or choreographers. For that reason, they belong to no one and anyone can chant or perform them. This is very different from the social disapproval that is attached to people chanting or performing fraternity/sorority step chants and/or chanting and/or performing certain stomp and shake cheers. In those performance arts, certain chants/cheers and certain movmements are signature cultural products of those groups and non-members are socially prohibited from using them, unless-particularly in the case of stomp and shake cheers- they receive direct permission from the cheer squads which composed and choreographed those cheers.

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RELATED LINKS:
Click http://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2013/05/an-overview-of-black-greek-letter.html for a post about historically Black (African American) Greek letter steppin (stepping).

Click http://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2013/05/overview-of-stomp-shake-cheerleading.html for an overview of stomp & shake cheerleading.

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This concludes Part I of this post on foot stomping cheers.

Thanks to the unknown composer/s of these cheers. Thanks also to all those who are quoted in this post, the performers who are featured in these videos, and the publishers of these videos on YouTube.

Thanks for visiting pancocojams.

Visitor comments are welcome.